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Spray Mixing Instructions Considering Tree Row Volume - TRV

Last Modified: May 17, 2018

Plant Growth Regulator response is a function of the amount of chemical deposited on the leaves of the tree.  The amount of chemical that is sprayed per acre should consider tree size to not over-apply chemical to small trees and under-apply chemical to large trees.

      Tree size can be used to adjust the amount of chemical added to the spray tank by calculating the size of the tree canopy (tree row volume).  The tree row volume (TRV) of an orchard is defined as the volume of water needed to spray the trees to drip point, which is termed a full dilute spray.

      The amount of chemical can then be adjusted to the size of the trees with fully-grown trees receiving a full amount (100% dose) and smaller trees receiving an appropriate fraction of a full dose.

      The volume of water used to carry the chemical to the leaves can be less than the full dilute volume, but if less than the full dilute volume is used then the amount of chemical in the tank must be concentrated to allow the proper amount of chemical to be applied to each tree.

      The concentration factor is determined by dividing the full dilute volume of water (TRV) by the actual amount of water to be sprayed.

 

First Step is to Mix the Tank Properly

 

This process can be broken down into 3 easy steps:

 

1.  Calculate Tree Row Volume  (Tree height X Tree width X 43,560 X 0.7) / (Between row spacing X 1000)

  • Example of a Tall Spindle Orchard - for many mature Tall Spindle Orchards this is ~200 gallons/acre.  Example  (11' X 7' X 43560 X 0.7) / (12' X1000) = 196 gallons/acre (rounded to 200GPA).
  • For the example of the Tall Spindle trees lets assume you set up the sprayer to spray of Tree Row Volume which would be100 gallons/acre. Thus this is a 2X application on TRV trees of 200GPA (200/100=2).
  • Multiply the recommended rate for 100 gallons dilute TRV basis X 2 for each chemical (except oil or surfactants).

2.  Then set up the sprayer for less than the full TRV amount

3.  Concentrate the chemicals in the tank

 

      We suggest that for each orchard block, you calculate tree row volume with the formula above and set up your sprayer for some fraction of TRV and then calculate YOUR own concentration factor. Note- Old semi dwarf trees may be 300GPA+  however, these older bigger trees with more vigorous rootstocks, thin easier, so set your maximum TRV at 200 GPA max, never 300.  However younger trees in tall spindle blocks may be only be 150, 125 or 100 GPA TRV on younger trees.  We strongly recommend that you calculate the actual TRV with the formula in #1 above and then adjust the chemical rate based on how many gallons you spray per acre

 

Next Step is Adjusting the Spray Pattern

 

      Often the bottoms of trees show over-thinning while the tops of trees show under-thinning.  Our standard recommendation is to nozzle the sprayer so that 2/3 of the spray volume is directed to the top half of the tree and only 1/3 is directed to the bottom half of the tree.  Recent studies have shown that this still gives 65% of the fruit in the top half of a tall spindle trees and only 35% of the fruit in the bottom half of the tree.  To overcome this imbalance of crop load and ensure fruit on the entire tree uniformly, our new recommendations are in two parts:

 

1.  Bloom and petal fall sprays

  • Adjust nozzles so that spray pattern directs 2/3 of the spray to the top of the tree and 1/3 to the bottom of the tree.

2.  Sprays from 10-18mm

  • Completely shut off the bottom half of the nozzles, so that all of the spray is directed to the top half of the tree and no spray be directed to the bottom half of the tree.
  • Mature Tall Spindle Orchard (11' X 7' X 43560 X 0.7) / (12' X1000) = 196 gallons/acre (rounded to 200GPA)
  • Sprayer calibrated at 100GPA (1/2 TRV) 
  • Concentration factor = 2X (200/100=2)
  • The dilute rate for Sevin is 1pt/100 but the orchard needs 200 gallons for full coverage so each acre should receive 2pts.
  • The dilute rate for Maxcel is 48oz/100 but the orchard needs 200 gallons for full coverage so each acre should receive 96 oz.
  • Calculation: 1pint Sevin x 2X= 2pt Sevin per 100 gallons of spray
  • + 48 ounces Maxcel x 2X=96 oz. Maxcel per 100 gallons of spray
  • If your tank is 500 gallons you would times chemical by 5
  • 5 x 2 Pints of Sevin XLR= 10 pints per 500 gallon tank+
  • 5 x 96 ounces Maxcel=480 ounces per 500 gallon tank and sprayer will cover 5 acres

 

      These recommendations are based on three years of research with Terence Robinson and Andrew Landers and the last 3 years with Poliana Francescatto and Jaume Lordan. Turning of the bottom half of the nozzles and adjusting the chemical rate up produced the most uniform fruit set overall. The reason this works is that the upper part of the tree gets so much sun light and therefore produces more carbohydrate. Fruit on top receive a greater carbohydrate supply making fruits are harder to thin, as compared to the fruit located on the bottom of the tree where you have more shade. The harder to thin fruit on tree tops need the extra chemical (PGR) to assist in thinning fruit.

      Please note that when you shut off the bottom half of the nozzles you need to adjust up your rate of chemical per acre you add to the tank since the volume of water applied per acre is less. We still want to keep the same amount of chemical per acre, even though you are spraying only the top of the trees. The bottom part of the trees will get some drift and do not need to be directly sprayed in 8-14 and 18mm sprays. Therefore, if we turn of 50% of the nozzles and reduce the GPA by 50% you need to recalculate the concentration factor and increase amount of chemical you add to the tank. More chemical has to go in the tank to account to the factor you shut off nozzles and less water is applied to the acre.

      For example, if you reduce the water per by 50%, instead off covering five acres with one tank it now covers ten acres. The way to think about this is how many acres will your tank be covering, this determines how much chemical per acre you need to add.  (If you just want to try shutting of 30% of the bottom nozzles that's ok to start, and adjust the chemical you add per tank accordingly.)

      Note: one important item, you will have to know the output of the nozzles you turn off, to calculate the water reduction in gallons per acre. Often growers have already have smaller nozzle sizes on the bottom.  Calculate the total output for each nozzle turned off on each side x 2 sides, and subtract from your GPA to get your actual GPA output.

 

Example 1. Calculations for bloom or petal fall spray of Maxcel+Sevin with all nozzles on.  Standard rate of Sevin XLR at 1 pint per 100gal TRV basis+ Maxcel at 48 ounces per 100 gallons TRV basis:

 

Example 2.  Calculations for 12mm or 18mm sprays of Maxcel+Sevin with bottom nozzles turned off.  Standard rate of Sevin XLR at 1 pint per 100gal TRV basis+ Maxcel at 48 ounces per 100 gallons TRV basis:

  • Mature Tall Spindle Orchard (11' X 7' X 43560 X 0.7) / (12' X1000) = 196 gallons/acre (rounded to 200GPA)
  • Sprayer calibrated at 50GPA (1/4 TRV since bottom half of nozzles turned off) 
  • Concentration factor = 4X (200/50=4)
  • The dilute rate for Sevin is 1pt/100 but the orchard needs 200 gallons for full coverage so each acre should receive 2pts.
  • The dilute rate for Maxcel is 48oz/100 but the orchard needs 200 gallons for full coverage so each acre should receive 96 oz.
  • Calculation: 1pint Sevin x 4X= 4pt Sevin per 100 gallons of spray
  • + 48 ounces Maxcel x 4X=192 oz. Maxcel per 100 gallons of spray
  • If your tank is 500 gallons you would times chemical by 5
  • 5 x 4 Pints of Sevin XLR= 20 pints per 500 gallon tank+
  • 5 x 192 ounces Maxcel=960 ounces per 500 gallon tank and sprayer will cover 10 acres

 

Example 3. Calculations for bloom or petal fall spray of NAA+Sevin with all nozzles on.  Standard rate of Sevin XLR at 1 pint per 100gal TRV basis+ NAA (Fruitone) at 10ppm or 4 ounces per 100 gallons TRV basis:

  • Mature Tall Spindle Orchard (11' X 7' X 43560 X 0.7) / (12' X1000) = 196 gallons/acre (rounded to 200GPA)
  • Sprayer calibrated at 100GPA (1/2 TRV) 
  • Concentration factor = 2X (200/100=2)
  • The dilute rate for Sevin is 1pt/100 but the orchard needs 200 gallons for full coverage so each acre should receive 2pts.
  • The dilute rate for Fruitone is 4oz/100 but the orchard needs 200 gallons for full coverage so each acre should receive 8 oz.
  • Calculation: 1pint Sevin x 2X= 2pt Sevin per 100 gallons of spray
  • + 4 ounces Fruitone x 2X=8 oz. Fruitone per 100 gallons of spray
  • If your tank is 500 gallons you would times chemical by 5
  • 5 x 2 Pints of Sevin XLR= 10 pints per 500 gallon tank+
  • 5 x 8 ounces Fruitone=40 ounces per 500 gallon tank and sprayer will cover 5 acres

 

Example 4. Calculations for 12mm or 18mm sprays of NAA+Sevin with bottom nozzles turned off.  Standard rate of Sevin XLR at 1 pint per 100gal TRV basis+ NAA (Fruitone) at 3 ounces per 100 gallons TRV basis:

  • Mature Tall Spindle Orchard (11' X 7' X 43560 X 0.7) / (12' X1000) = 196 gallons/acre (rounded to 200GPA)
  • Sprayer calibrated at 50GPA (1/4 TRV since bottom half of nozzles turned off) 
  • Concentration factor = 4X (200/50=4)
  • The dilute rate for Sevin is 1pt/100 but the orchard needs 200 gallons for full coverage so each acre should receive 2pts.
  • The dilute rate for Fruitone is 3oz/100 but the orchard needs 200 gallons for full coverage so each acre should receive 6 oz.
  • Calculation: 1pint Sevin x 4X= 4pt Sevin per 100 gallons of spray
  • + 3 ounces Fruitone x 4X=12 oz. Fruitone per 100 gallons of spray
  • If your tank is 500 gallons you would times chemical by 5
  • 5 x 4 Pints of Sevin XLR= 20 pints per 500 gallon tank+
  • 5 x 12 ounces Fruitone=60 ounces per 500 gallon tank and sprayer will cover 10 acres


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Upcoming Events

Farm Financial Management Tuesdays - Planning for a Change or Exiting Your Farm Business

November 30, 2021 : Assessing the Financial Ramifications of and Options for Significant Change to Your Farm Business

The inflationary economy is upon us! The huge influx of money into the US economy following the COVID-19 pandemic has manufactured high prices and in turn increased operating costs for farm business thus forcing many businesses into net operating loss situations. Other farms are facing high labor costs or chronic labor shortages.  Some farms have taken on debt loads that make these increased costs unaffordable.  Depending on the stage in the business lifecycle, it may make sense to change enterprises or exit the farming business entirely. 

Join CCE ENYCH Ag Business Educator, Elizabeth Higgins, and CAAHP Ag Business Educator, Dayton Maxwell, for a one-hour program to learn about the financial aspects of changing or exiting a farm business. 

December 7, 2021 : The Family and Emotional Component; Shifting Business Direction and Life After Farming

As farm business enterprises are changed or disbanded, the emotional stress can be tremendous, especially when individuals and family members maintain diminished assurance relative to future security. 

Join Gabriel Gurley and Brenda O'Brien of New York FarmNet for a one-hour program focused on successfully navigating the emotional turmoil of a family farm business transition.

December 14, 2021 : New Venture Creation; Shifting Business Direction and Life After Farming

Change creates opportunity and new opportunities are certain when farm businesses change or end. 

Join Gabriel Gurley of New York FarmNet for a one-hour overview of identifying ways and means to capitalize on new opportunities resulting from farm business transitions.

 

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Remote Produce Safety Alliance Grower Training Course - Dec 2021

December 8 - December 9, 2021

A grower training course developed by the Produce Safety Alliance (PSA) that meets the regulatory requirements of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) for farms subject to the Produce Safety Rule. All farms are welcome to attend to learn about recommended food safety practices for growing, handling, and storing fresh produce. Course registration fee includes a course manual and certificate of course completion by the Association of Food and Drug Officials (AFDO).

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Tax Management for Beginning and Small Farm Businesses

January 18, 2022

Tax Management for Beginning and Small Farm Businesses.

A one-night virtual meeting for beginning and part-time farmers that provides useful tax information enabling participants to be make better tax decisions for their business.   Federal and state income taxes will be covered. Tax regulations specific to NYS will be covered as well. 


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Announcements

2021 SWD Insecticide Quick Guide

Prepare your sprayer and make sure you have the insecticides of choice on hand. Click on the following link for the revised 2021 SWD Insecticide Quick Guide: https://rvpadmin.cce.cornell.edu/uploads/doc_981.pdf

Current recommendations are to use the most effective material you can early in the spray program - even though the population seems small. The strategy is to keep the population small for as long as possible as it's very hard to gain control after the numbers have ballooned.  

USDA Offers Disaster Assistance for Producers

USDA Offers Disaster Assistance for Producers Facing Inclement Weather

Severe weather events create significant challenges and often result in catastrophic loss for agricultural producers. Despite every attempt to mitigate risk, your operation may suffer losses. USDA offers several programs to help with recovery.

Risk Management
For producers who have risk protection through Federal Crop Insurance or the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP), we want to remind you to report crop damage to your crop insurance agent or the local Farm Service Agency (FSA) office.

If you have crop insurance, contact your agency within 72 hours of discovering damage and be sure to follow up in writing within 15 days. If you have NAP coverage, file a Notice of Loss (also called Form CCC-576) within 15 days of loss becoming apparent, except for hand-harvested crops, which should be reported within 72 hours.

Disaster Assistance
USDA also offers disaster assistance programs, which is especially important to livestock, fruit and vegetable, specialty and perennial crop producers who have fewer risk management options.
First, the Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP) and Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybee and Farm-raised Fish Program (ELAP) reimburses producers for a portion of the value of livestock, poultry and other animals that died as a result of a qualifying natural disaster event or for loss of grazing acres, feed and forage. And, the Livestock Forage Disaster Program (LFP) provides assistance to producers of grazed forage crop acres that have suffered crop loss due to a qualifying drought. Livestock producers suffering the impacts of drought can also request Emergency Haying and Grazing on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) acres.

For LIP and ELAP, you will need to file a Notice of Loss for livestock and grazing or feed losses within 30 days and honeybee losses within 15 days. For TAP, you will need to file a program application within 90 days.

Documentation
It's critical to keep accurate records to document all losses following this devastating cold weather event. Livestock producers are advised to document beginning livestock numbers by taking time and date-stamped video or pictures prior to after the loss.

Other common documentation options include:
- Purchase records
- Production records
- Vaccination records
- Bank or other loan documents
- Third-party certification

Additional Resources
On farmers.gov, the Disaster Assistance Discovery Tool, Disaster-at-a-Glance fact sheet, and Farm Loan Discovery Tool can help you determine program or loan options.

While we never want to have to implement disaster programs, we are here to help. To file a Notice of Loss or to ask questions about available programs, contact the Rensselaer County USDA Service Center @ 518 271 1889 ext. 2. The office is open for business, however due to pandemic restrictions all in-person visits require an appointment.


Resources from CCE ENYCHP!

We are developing new ways to connect with the CCE ENYCHP team this year! We have a Youtube page located at this link. Check out videos on Table Grape Production, Pest Updates and the 20 Minute Ag Manager - in 4 Minutes series

We have a Facebook Page here as well as an Instagram page. We keep these places updated with current projects, events, and other interesting articles and deadlines.

There are also text alerts available. Fruit and vegetable farmers in 17 Eastern NY counties can now receive real time alerts on high risk disease and pest outbreaks texted directly to their cell phone. The Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture program, which is supported by local Cornell Cooperative Extension associations, will now offer text alerts to those that enroll in our program in 2019. 

The text alerts will be reserved for important crop alerts that could impact management decisions immediately. For instance, if there were an outbreak of Late Blight in the area, this would be transmitted to vegetable growers.

Farmers can choose the crop for which they wish to receive updates. Additionally they can request that Ag Business Alerts be sent to them. These alerts might include due dates for crop insurance deadlines, market opportunities etc.

If you have questions, please contact enychp@cornell.edu


Podcasts

FSMA Updates with Gretchen Wall

August 10, 2021
In this episode, Elisabeth Hodgdon discusses news and updates related to FSMA’s Produce Safety Rule with food safety specialist Gretchen Wall. They discuss inspection schedules for the 2021 season, On Farm Readiness Reviews, water testing, new resources available for growers, and more.

Resources:
Records Required by the FSMA Produce Safety Rule, by K. Woods, D. Stoeckel, B. Fick, G. Wall, and E.A. Bihn. This fact sheet includes an explanation of required records as well as printable record templates:
https://producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu/sites/producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu/files/shared/documents/Records-Required-by-the-FSMA-PSR.pdf

Upcoming Remote, Online, and In-Person Produce Safety Alliance Grower Training Courses:
https://producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu/training/grower-training-courses/upcoming-grower-trainings/

Interactive Google map of water testing labs, created by the Northeast Center to Advance Food Safety:
https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/viewer?amp%3Busp=sharing&mid=1C8KHM6jJszj9auYQttUbVtPKtb4eEBSJ&ll=41.22288057139939%2C-78.58548244999999&z=5\

Interested in joining the Produce Safety Alliance listserv? Sign up here to receive FSMA updates, notifications of educational opportunities and new resources, and more:
https://producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu/

Contact Information:
To schedule an On Farm Readiness Review or discuss your farm’s FSMA PSR coverage status, contact Steve Schirmer (315-487–0852 or steve.schirmer@agriculture.ny.gov), or Aaron Finley (518-474-5235 or aaron.finley@agriculture.ny.gov).

Episode speakers:
Elisabeth Hodgdon, ENYCHP vegetable specialist: 518-650-5323 or eh528@cornell.edu
Gretchen Wall, Produce Safety Alliance coordinator and Northeast Regional Extension Associate: 607-882-3087 or glw53@cornell.edu

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