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Apples

Apples The 2012 USDA Census revealed that the 16 counties comprising the Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture program had over 12,500 acres devoted to apple production. The lower Hudson Valley region and the Lake Champlain region are two of the largest and most important apple production areas in New York state which ranks second in the nation for apple production and first in the country for canned apple products, although much of that crop is produced in western NY.

Apples are thought to have originated between the Caspian and the Black Seas and proof of humans’ enjoyment of apples traces back at least 750,000 years. Early settlers brought apple seeds with them to the United States. Records indicate that apples were grown in New England as early as 1630. John Chapman, also known as Johnny Appleseed, along with many other traders, missionaries and Native Americans, were responsible for extensive apple tree plantings in the Midwest and beyond.

Apples are one of the most valuable fruit crops in the United States. The 9.0 billion pound U.S. 2012 apple crop was valued at nearly $3.1 billion. Apples are the second most consumed fruit (fresh and processed uses combined), following oranges. The average person consumes 44 pounds of apple products annually.

Over the last 20 years, Cornell research and extension projects have helped growers increase yields and fruit quality by increasing tree densities and improving labor efficiency. We estimate that profitability of new high density orchards is 100 to 300% greater than the traditional low-density orchards.

In 2013, Cornell University announced the introduction of two new apple varieties, SnapDragon and RubyFrost, developed through a managed release partnership with the New York Apple Growers (NYAG). The income generated through this partnership is used to market the new varieties and support Cornell’s apple-breeding program.

For more information about tree fruit production, please visit the Cornell Tree Fruit website at http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/tree_fruit/index.htm.

Fall Pre-Emergent Herbicide Timing Results and Takeaways

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 31, 2022

In the August TFN, David Bittner and I discussed his strategy of post-harvest applications of 2,4-D and clopyralid (Stinger) to clean up the herbicide strip and row middles of perennial broadleaves. In addition to making that application in the fall to manage your problem perennials, post-harvest can also be a good time to get your pre-emergent materials on to get a leg up on your annual weeds heading into the next growing season. In the next few paragraphs, we'll discuss some results from our ARDP funded project comparing fall and spring pre-emergent herbicide applications, and some strategies you can use to get the most out of your fall pre-emergent herbicide applications.


Late Season Pest Considerations

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 31, 2022

With the start of harvest, there are just a few remaining insect pest management issues to keep in mind.
The primary concern at this point should be internal leps. With labor concerns and a good crop, fruit may hang on the trees longer than originally thought, and it is important to stay vigilant to protect the crop. There is usually a third "flight" of codling moth, which normally doesn't result in larval populations of any consequence, but this year's extended stretch of favorable temperatures may carry that generation's development further than normal.


Visitor Food Safety Policies for a Successful Pick-Your-Own Season

Elisabeth Hodgdon, Vegetable Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 31, 2022

With pick-your-own (PYO) apple season upon us, customers are eager to get outdoors and enjoy the fall season and orchard scenery. Welcoming visitors to the orchard requires many advanced preparations to ensure a positive experience for both customers and employees. Food safety considerations should be included in these preparations as well. In this article, I review visitor requirements for farms covered by the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Produce Safety Rule, as well as best management practices to reduce microbial contamination in PYO orchards.

 


Have Perennial Broadleaf Issues?

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 4, 2022

While it is probably difficult to think about the post-harvest season at this time of year, I want to share a perennial weed management strategy now so you have time to plan accordingly in case you would like to implement it on some of your blocks this fall.

This strategy was explained to me by David Bittner of Bittner-Singer Orchards, and entails a post-harvest 2,4-D and clopyralid (Stinger) application, applied across the entire orchard floor "from tree to tree". The idea here is to hit both the herbicide strip and the row middle in a single pass, removing as many broadleaves from the strip and row middle as you can, while leaving your orchard sod intact. He has found from personal experience that treating against these weeds in the herbicide strip alone doesn't do the job, as they'll still persist in the row middle, and simply creep back into the strip.


Important Updates to Our Gala Storage and Harvest PGR Recommendations

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 4, 2022

Hudson Valley Gala producers are approaching a decision on ReTain application dates for 2022, and Champlain Valley growers won't be far behind. We've experienced a hot, dry summer to date in the Hudson Valley but it appears that at our predicted temperatures for August will moderate. The Champlain Valley has similarly been fairly hot and dry throughout the summer, similarly with a more moderate August in the forecast.


Keep an Eye Out for Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 4, 2022

The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), an invasive insect pest of apples, peaches, grapes, nuts, vegetable crops and more, has been on our minds and in our crops and homes for years now. Many growers we've spoken with in NY are most familiar with this pest because of their habit of overwintering in homes and barns, often aggregated in large numbers. However, increasingly often, we're speaking with growers who also see them or their damage in orchard blocks. While we expect there to be low BSMB pressure in Northern NY, they are established in the Hudson Valley, and are believed to now be a nuisance to growers as far north as the Mohawk Valley and Saratoga County.


Late Season Apple Insect Pests

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 4, 2022

As harvest preparations are being made, it is worth keeping in mind the late season arthropod pests that can still pop up and complicate life during the dog days of August. Take some time to ensure that your pest management program is not overlooking the following potential problems during this period.


Practical Implications of Early- and Mid-Summer Water Stress

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 4, 2022

The sunnier weather we experienced in June 2022 should have been good for photosynthesis and resulted in greater production of carbohydrates to support fruit growth compared to other years, unless the hotter temperatures and lack of rainfall in late June/early July 2022 in portions of Eastern New York have induced water stress in the plant. This is the kind of situation where even with irrigation apples don't always size that well. We think it is because the high temps and high evaporative demands with the rather high hydraulic resistance of apple roots, we get some significant stresses even with wet soil. The following Figure 1, modified from Mark O'Connell and Ian Goodwin in Australia, shows that increased afternoon vapor pressure deficit (VPD) creates greater stress in the plant. In a study we did with fruit growth monitors we found the fruit started to expand about 2 pm each day but with afternoon VPD's of 3 kPa even with irrigation the trees still experience stress and fruit growth is reduced.


2022 'Honeycrisp' Fruit Collection for Peel Sap Starts in Early July

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 30, 2022

In early July we will begin a cooperative effort between Cornell extension, growers, consultants, and storage operators to collect Honeycrisp fruitlets statewide to analyze them for mineral nutrient concentrations. This is part of a statewide extension effort funded by ARDP to evaluate Honeycrisp orchards throughout the state for determination of fruit storage potential and the risk of bitter pit in storage.


Cover Cropping Between Orchard Plantings

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 30, 2022

Now is the time for seeding midsummer grasses in fallow blocks that are between plantings. Growers who are planning to plant a new orchard site (or a replant site) next year can consider the use of cover crops before planting an orchard. The benefits are numerous.


Early Summer Pest Management

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 30, 2022

Now that we are getting into July, we can direct our attention to our usual summer suspects. The following is a brief rundown of some pests to keep on your radar, just to help prevent anything from getting out of hand.


Herbicide Resistant Horseweed in New York and Possible Implications

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 30, 2022

Horseweed (also called marestail) is a frequently occurring species in New York. It can be found growing in a variety of habitats, including along roadsides, in field crop and vegetable operations, and in berries, grapes, and tree fruit. Often considered a winter annual, horseweed has a wide germination window and seedlings can emerge in the spring, summer, and fall. Herbicide resistance, particularly to glyphosate, is widespread in the US and has recently been identified in New York (see the 2022 summer issue of Fruit Quarterly https://nyshs.org/fruit-quarterly/). Many of these populations were collected from soybean systems where glyphosate is frequently used for managing unwanted vegetation. Two New York populations, collected from a vineyard and an apple orchard in the Finger Lakes Region, were found to be susceptible to glyphosate but resistant to labeled rates of paraquat. Paraquat resistance in horseweed has been formally confirmed previously in Belgium (nurseries), Canada (peaches), Japan (orchards, grapes, roadsides, railways), California (almonds), Delaware (soybeans) and Mississippi (soybeans) (https://weedscience.org/Home.a... ).


Multiple trials of new precision agriculture tools for crop load management in N

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 30, 2022

Are you concerned about crop load management on your farm? Industry has taken note and you may have more tools for making management decisions in the future. "One of the challenges expressed by growers is that there still is a lot of manual time measuring and counting blossoms, fruitlets and apples, which is not only time-consuming, but it is subject to inconsistencies and different views depending on the staff input," said Jenny Lemieux, CEO of Vivid Machines, one of three companies trialing precision mapping and remote sensing tools this summer in New York. In addition to Vivid Machines, Farm Vision and Fruit Scout are also conducting on-farm trials.


White Rot and Black Rot Biology and Management

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 30, 2022

The white rot fungus, Botryosphaeria dothidea, often referred to as "Bot rot" or Botryosphaeria rot, can be a distinct canker on twigs, limbs, and trunks. The fungus produces two types of fruit rot, but leaf infections do not occur. Drought stress and winter injury have been associated with an increase in infection and canker expansion. This is a relatively weak fungal pathogen, and is only problematic when a tree is stressed, such as due to drought, winter injury, insect damage, or fire blight.
The black rot and frogeye leaf spot fungus, Botryosphaeria obtusa, attacks fruit, leaves, and bark of apple trees and other pomaceous plants.


Bitter Rot and Sooty Blotch/Flyspeck Management

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 3, 2022

Late June through harvest is the critical time for bitter rot management. Warm temperatures and rainfall are the ideal conditions for disease development. Growers are encouraged to apply fungicides on bitter rot susceptible apple blocks before any rain event starting in late June. Management programs for bitter rot will also manage SBFS. Specific fungicide recommendations are described for the summer.


Post-Petal Fall Insect Pests on the Horizon

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 3, 2022

As with many other biological events, insect development responds positively to warmer conditions. This was the case this year for sure, as we saw a marked uptick in pest activity following the stretch of hot weather we had around May 13-15 this season. Now that we are accumulating some heat units, management decisions for most major pests will tend to need addressing on a fairly predictable schedule. The following is a long-view update of some of the traditional crop protection scenarios during this period.


Where is fire blight in New York & New England?

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 3, 2022

Samples are tested for fire blight bacteria, streptomycin resistance, and strain. Testing is
completely free and we will get back to you with the result of your sample as quickly as we can.


Woolly Apple Aphids

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 3, 2022

Woolly apple aphids have been showing up in increasing numbers the past few years in Eastern New York orchards. In addition to apple, its hosts include American elm, hawthorn, and mountain ash. It overwinters as an egg in bark cracks and crevices, or as a nymph on roots underground and in various protected locations on trees. WAA is attracted to the base of root suckers and around pruning wounds and cankers on limbs and trunks, and colonizes both above-ground parts of the apple tree as well as the roots. In the spring, the nymphs, which are reddish-brown with a bluish-white waxy covering, crawl up from the roots to initiate aerial colonies. These initially build up on the inside of the canopy on sites such as wounds or pruning scars, and later become numerous in the outer portion of the tree canopy, usually during late July to early August.


Early season disease management in 2022

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 1, 2022

Winter finally came again in mid-January, and we had reasonable snow fall through February and into mid-March, during which came in the form of sporadic snowstorms. Snow cover is consistently over, and while it's still cool in the evenings, we've had considerable bouts of warm temperatures often exceeding 60F. In the Hudson Valley and Long Island, green tip is presently happening or imminent. The rest of the production areas in NY may still have a week or more before bud break. While we've had some bursts of warm weather and in the coming week, there are cooler days forecasted for the week, which could slow tree development. Overall, the season will be upon us shortly, and we need to consider early season management for apple scab. In 2021, there was a decent amount of rainfall in early to mid-April, but little in May to June, which was characterized by sporadic, but hot (>75F) heavy thunderstorms and July more so. Still with the drought from 2020 and the lack of rain from tight cluster to petal fall, my unsprayed trees of several different cultivars had only moderate levels of apple scab. Not surprisingly, there were no reports of apple scab control failures in commercial orchards anywhere in NY.


Managing Pruning and Fertilization of Honeycrisp to Balance Growth, Cropping etc

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 1, 2022

Bitter pit in Honeycrisp is affected by tree vigor which in turn is affected by both pruning and fertilization levels. Thus, to achieve a balance between vigor and fruit quality we must manage both pruning and fertilization in a coordinated manner. When deciding how severely to prune a Honeycrisp tree, we should consider flower bud number per tree and also leaf nutrient levels and the peel sap nutrient values, which we have been collecting statewide over the last 2 summers.


Soil Qualities to Optimize New Orchard Growth

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 1, 2022

As a follow up to our soil health session at the 2022 Cornell Tree Fruit Conference, I thought I would briefly discuss what I consider to be some of the key characteristics of a high-quality orchard soil. I think a good way to think about this is by thinking through what some of the key functions of an orchard soil are.


The State of Today's Wholesale Apple Industry in the Hudson Valley

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 1, 2022

During our winter fruit conference program in February 2020, just prior to covid shutting down our in-person meetings, Mike Basedow and I devoted the entire second day to the question of "What apple variety should I plant?". After a full day of listening to growers, marketers, nursery producers, and academics tackle the question from different angles, the path towards future success remained fuzzy at best. The question has remained foremost in the minds of our Eastern New York producers and the answer continues to elude us. Today, for the first time in many years, nurseries have trees available for purchase without prior contracts and many producers have slowed or even delayed their replanting plans. With establishment costs heading north of 25K $$$ per acre and faced with the task of top-working young blocks of the last, but now past, new variety star to more reliable options begs the question: "What variety do I plant" or perhaps more telling, "should I be planting anything at all?"


Tips in Preparation of Herbicide Shortages in 2022

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 1, 2022

Many growers in the US have been focused on predicted herbicide shortages in the upcoming field season. While the primary concerns have surrounded glyphosate and glufosinate, there is increasing apprehension that active ingredients of importance to tree fruit and small fruit growers may also be affected. Although the supply change is dynamic, chemical stocks may become, and remain, tight at the local or regional level as growers try to fill gaps in their toolboxes. As spring residual herbicides are soon to be applied, please consider the following when planning for the 2022 season.


Sample Orchard Soil Health Test Results

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: March 25, 2022

An example output from a soil health assessment from the Cornell Soil Health Laboratory.


Early Season Tree Fruit Pest Control for 2022

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: March 3, 2022

The first pest control applications in tree fruit usually consist of oil and copper sprays. These are long standing standard recommendations that are not without special considerations. Oil is generally recommended at rates of 2%, or 2 gals. per 100 gallons of water for dormant applications. Traditionally this has translated to 4 gallons of oil per acre for stone fruit based on a dilute volume of 200 gallons per acre: the amount generally considered to cover a mature peach tree to the point of drip. For pome fruit the recommendation has been 6 gallons of oil per acre based on a dilute volume of 300 gallons per acre: the amount generally considered to cover a mature semi dwarf apple to the point of drip. The use limitations and application rates vary by product and growth stage so be sure to read and adhere to the product label.


Integrative Management of Bitter Pit in 'Honeycrisp' Apples

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: January 27, 2022

This article is a "meat and potatoes" summary of an American Society of Horticultural Science (ASHS) Postharvest Group webinar I presented on January 18, 2022.  The webinar audience was a mix of research, extension, and commercial industry fruit workers from North America and Europe. As such, it was necessary to introduce the NYS apple industry, the Hudson Valley in particular, the Honeycrisp (HC) apple, and an overview of the 6-years of results from a Honeycrisp bitter pit (BP) research project for the most part conducted in the Hudson and Champlain valleys.  Since our CCE-ENYCHP Produce Pages readers have seen much of this data presented at fruit schools and in previous articles, I'm going to focus on specific recommendations that you can implement for the 2022 growing season.  


Models for the Future Apple Plots: Benefits of Pre-plant Bio-remediation

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: December 20, 2021

Two years of bio-remediation with rotation crops during the establishment of demonstration apple plots suppressed nematodes and improved soil health.  The pre-plant bio-remediation practices were evaluated and Dagger nematodes were decreased to the zer- tolerance level, and several soil health indicators were improved. Tree growth and fruit yield in the treatment plots were also higher than in control plots.


Hick's Orchard - Leveraging Social Media to Help Fulfill Their Mission

Laura McDermott, Team Leader, Small Fruit and Vegetable Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: December 16, 2021

Hick's Orchard is located in Granville, NY just a few miles from the Vermont border.  The slate industry may have first put this little village on the map, but Hick's Orchard is what many people think of when they hear Granville.  The orchard opened their gates to U-Pick in 1905 and is recognized as the oldest U-Pick farm in New York State.  In its 117 years of operation, the 350-acre farm has been owned and operated by just two families.  The Wilson family currently owns Hicks Orchard and Dan Wilson is the 2nd generation of the Wilson family to work towards the farm's mission, 'Grow Food to Build Community'.


EMR Model Hudson Valley Honeycrisp Bitter Pit Prediction

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: November 19, 2021

The data presented in Figure 1 are from 19 Hudson Valley (HV) M.9 clone, M.26 and Bud.9 blocks that have been monitored annually since 2016. Blue bars represent observed bitter pit (BP), red bars represent EMR (Environment, Mineral profile, and Rootstock model) predicted values. In this "view from 10,000 feet", the EMR model has been reasonably accurate in predicting the HV BP trend in five of the six seasons, while over-predicting BP in 2018. As a practical matter, for a prediction model to be useful it must emphasize accuracy in the range of 0-20% BP incidence.  


Fall Scab Inoculum Reduction Strategies

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: October 27, 2021

While scab was relatively light in 2021 throughout much of the Eastern NY region, there may be some problem blocks here and there that would benefit from inoculum reduction strategies this fall. The objective of inoculum reduction is to eliminate a large proportion of the ascospores that would otherwise be produced in overwintering leaves. Fungicides applied next spring will be more effective when applied in these reduced inoculum orchards. 


Pre-Harvest Meeting 8.27.21

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 30, 2021

2021 FGRM Measurement Template

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 30, 2021

2021 FGRM Measurement Template


Fruit Growth Rate Protocol 2021

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 30, 2021

Precision Chemical Thinning in 2021 for Gala and Honeycrisp


Managing Fire Blight in 2021

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 30, 2021

2020 fire blight season recap. In 2020, there were devastating fire blight outbreaks in NY and much of New England. The season was characterized by hot dry weather from the end of bloom into petal fall, which were the perfect conditions for systemic shoot blight. In the second half of May many sites experienced extreme risk for fire blight when bloom was apparently over and rainfall, dew, and humidity were scarce. Many growers were mystified with the subsequent outbreaks of shoot blight and perplexed as to how blossom infections could occur with the lack of moisture during high-risk periods. This is a common occurrence in the pacific northwest where fire blight devastates apple production despite a dry climate. Indeed, it may take only the slightest bit of internal canopy humidity or water from a nutritional or fungicide application to start an epidemic in exceptionally warm weather. We should remain cautious with vigorous growth during warm weather in the 2021 season, particularly as we approach petal fall and as shoots elongate. 


The 2021 Honeycrisp Playbook: Early Foliar Calcium

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 23, 2021

Early is where it's at:  Individual Honeycrisp fruits analyzed for mineral content around the end of the cell division period of fruit development (+40 mm) have been found to be highly variable in mineral content, particularly calcium.  Four years of research results in the Hudson Valley show that early season fruit calcium content can vary as much as 4.2X from a low Ca fruit to a high Ca fruit (figure 1).  These finding suggest that our calcium troubles start early in the growing season and therefore should be addressed early as well.  The calcium cation is not very mobile with plant tissue and doesn't move from cells with a surplus to cells in deficit.  Calcium cations need to be available for cell walls and membranes locally, and when needed.  Too far away and/or too late is of little help. Since calcium plays a role within the plant in hormonal signaling, the cations cannot remain "free" within cell cytoplasm or within the spaces between cells and cell walls.  Free calcium cations that are not incorporated promptly into cell membranes, cell walls, and endoplasmic reticulum are quickly deactivated and made unavailable through sequestration within cell vacuoles.


The 2021 Honeycrisp Playbook: Apogee at Pink for Bitter Pit Suppression

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 19, 2021

The 2021 Honeycrisp Playbook: Apogee (Prohexadione calcium) at Pink for Bitter Pit Suppression.

Daniel Donahue, CCE-ENYCHP, Hudson Valley New York

"Effective Bitter Pit suppression in Honeycrisp involves the deployment of a number of tactics over the course of the growing season, there is no silver bullet, no trick play to save the game, think of it like following a playbook in football, three yards and a cloud of dust."


2021 Disease Management Outlook for Apple Powdery Mildew

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: March 15, 2021

Early Season Disease Management for 2021

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: March 15, 2021

Herbicide Lookup by Active Ingredient

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: October 13, 2020
Herbicide Lookup by Active Ingredient

Use this tool to look up the efficacy of herbicides to control common orchard weeds.


Harvest Maturity Indices

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 31, 2020

This table shows the optimal maturity indices for several apple varieties.


SnapDragon (NY-1) Starch Index Chart

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 31, 2020

Starch index chart for SnapDragon (NY-1) apples


Controlling Fruit Rots and Other Summer Diseases

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: July 13, 2020

This is a presentation by Dr. Srdjan Acimovic of the Hudson Valley Research Lab. In this webinar, Dr. Acimovic discusses the biology and management of summer diseases of apples. Topics covered include bitter rot, Marssonina blotch, sooty blotch/flyspeck, and more.


2020 ENY Fire Blight Sampling Form

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 22, 2020
2020 ENY Fire Blight Sampling Form

Fill out this form when sending fire blight samples.


Strategies for Dealing with Pesky Perennial Weeds

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 14, 2020
Strategies for Dealing with Pesky Perennial Weeds

Perennial weeds can be particularly difficult to manage in the apple orchard. These plants are defined as being able to live for more than two years, which is due to their abilities to produce large root systems or other underground storage structures, such as bulbs, tubers, and rhizomes. These structures facilitate the spread of perennials in orchards, although many species also produce seed that support dispersal.


Prepping Your Air Blast Sprayer for Spring

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: March 12, 2020

Sprayers must be regularly checked over to ensure that proper maintenance has been carried out and that no outstanding repairs need to be done. Faulty sprayers contribute to increased drift levels and waste money through inefficiency and overuse of chemicals.


Precision Pruning for Early Crop Load Management

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: February 18, 2020
Precision Pruning for Early Crop Load Management

Precision pruning is the first step in precision crop load management. This video covers the basics of how to prune your tall spindle apple orchard to reduce the bud load on your trees.


Interview with Dan Donahue: Bitter Pit Suppression and Cornell's Apogee Trials

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: January 31, 2020
Interview with Dan Donahue: Bitter Pit Suppression and Cornell's Apogee Trials

CCE ENYCHP vegetable specialist Daniel Donahue was recently interviewed by Good Fruit Grower at the Washington State Tree Fruit Association's Annual Meeting in Wenatchee, WA.  

Dan discusses bitter pit suppression and Cornell's Apogee trials in this Good Fruit Grower interview.

Visit the following link to view the interview: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZC6z1a7MF9k



Renovating Old Orchards

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: December 13, 2019
Renovating Old Orchards

This webinar will show you how to prune and renovate old, unmanaged apple trees.


Planning Your Irrigation with Malusim

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: July 10, 2019
Planning Your Irrigation with Malusim

The Malusim app allows you to enter spray records, use the fruit growth rate model, the carbohydrate thinning model, and the irrigation model.  The tool uses the Cornell evapotranspiration model and weather data off your station to determine how much irrigation is needed for each block.


2019 Fire Blight Survey

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 13, 2019
2019 Fire Blight Survey

Kerik Cox's lab will be conducting a fire blight survey again this year, investigating streptomycin resistance and strain distribution across NY State and New England.


2019 Eastern New York Fruit & Vegetable Conference Tree Fruit Presentations

Last Modified: April 3, 2019
2019 Eastern New York Fruit & Vegetable Conference Tree Fruit Presentations

Presentations from the 2019 ENYCHP Eastern New York Fruit & Vegetable Conference held February 19-21 for the tree fruit sections.


Cold Hardy Rootstocks for Eastern NY

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: January 17, 2019
Cold Hardy Rootstocks for Eastern NY

Cold injury is a concern for apple production in Eastern New York, where extremely cold mid-winter temperatures and dramatic temperature fluctuations in the late fall and early spring are not uncommon.  Let's review the types of cold damage we might expect to see in rootstock tissues, and discuss which rootstocks might be most appropriate for dealing with the cold in a high density production system.  


Apple Grafting Resources

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: December 13, 2018
Apple Grafting Resources

These videos describe two different methods for grafting apple trees.


The Scourge of Bitter Pit

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: December 10, 2018
The Scourge of Bitter Pit

It's looking like a difficult storage year for Hudson Valley Honeycrisp Producers

Reports are starting to filter in of excessive Honeycrisp cullage out of storage this season.  The predominant defect reported is bitter pit, a surprise to some following observations that this season's crop appeared relatively clean at harvest.  Our ENYCHP tree fruit team is currently in the 3rd year of our comprehensive Honeycrisp/Bitter Pit survey study, and our results to date shed some light on how 2018 compares to '16 and '17. 


2018 Northern NY Trap Data and Pest Exclusion with Hail Netting

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: October 23, 2018

During the 2018 growing season, we maintained an IPM trapping network in Northern New York, ranging from Chazy in Northern Clinton County to Rexford in Southern Saratoga County.  From May through mid-September, we sent weekly e-alerts of our trap counts for oriental fruit moth, codling moth, obliquebanded leafroller, and apple maggot.  Now that harvest is winding down, I would like to review this season's pest trends, and discuss what we observed from our hail netting trials in the Champlain Valley.


Marssonina Leaf Blotch of Apple - A Growing Problem in South-Eastern New York

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: October 23, 2018
Marssonina Leaf Blotch of Apple - A Growing Problem in South-Eastern New York

Excessive rain in New York and the rest of the Eastern US experienced in the second half of both the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons favored the development of Marssonina Leaf Blotch (MLB), a disease caused by Marssonina coronaria (sexual stage Diplocarpon mali). In early September 2017, in the lower-Hudson Valley and south NY we found MLB late in the summer in more than several apple orchards on Mutsu, Honeycrisp, NY-1 (SnapDragon), NY-2 (RubyFrost), Gala, Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Pristine, Grimes Golden, Northern Spy, Stayman Winesap, Tompkins King, and others. The alarming outcome was defoliation of lower part of the tree crowns, especially where moisture due to heavy dew or sprinkler irrigation was present up until midday.


2018 Apple Storage Observations and Recommendations

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: September 12, 2018

As we jump into another harvest season, let's review some storage suggestions from Dr. Chris Watkins, and results from our own observations and research in Eastern New York, for some of our major cultivars. 


Plant Growth Regulator Field Day Review

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 10, 2018
Plant Growth Regulator Field Day Review

Near the end of the June, I attended the summer PGR meeting and orchard tour that was held in Geneva, where Dr. Poliana Francescatto reviewed some of her recent work with PGR's. After a detailed discussion of floral bud induction and initiation indoors, we headed out to the research orchard to view a handful of her current field trials.  In this article, we will review some of the key takeaways from that tour. 


Recommendations for Harvest Management Plant Growth Regulators in Eastern NY

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 10, 2018

Recommendations for Harvest Management Plant Growth Regulators in Eastern New York for 2018

Dan Donahue & Mike Basedow, CCE-ENYCHP



Precision Irrigation: Where to Start?

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: July 6, 2018

As we enter the warm summer months, you might consider trialing the precision irrigation model on your farm to improve tree growth in your new plantings and maximize fruit size in your mature blocks.


Increasing Your Wild Orchard Pollinators

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 11, 2018

Last week while we were nearing petal fall in the Champlain Valley, a grower and I were discussing when he ought to take his honey bees out of the orchard, which led us to discussing the role wild bees are playing in his orchard. These wild bees help pollinate our crop every year, so I think it is worth reviewing some of the different kinds of bees we can expect to see at bloom, and what we can do to encourage their visits. 


The CCE Apple Decline Survey Has Been Extended Through the Summer of 2018

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: June 11, 2018
The CCE Apple Decline Survey Has Been Extended Through the Summer of 2018

Cornell Extension Specialists are being asked with increasing frequency to investigate both chronic decline and rapid collapse of apple trees in young, high-density plantings in all regions of New York State.  Symptoms of chronic decline can include poor growth, off color foliage, and a generally unthrifty appearance that worsens over several years.  The death of an (apparently) previously healthy tree over the course of just a few weeks has been termed Rapid Apple Decline (RAD).  While the symptoms of chronic decline are subtler in some cases, RAD is eye-catching.  Afflicted trees appear to "burn up" mid-summer after having set and sized a normal crop load.  RAD may be a subset of the chronic decline condition or a completely different problem; causation is unknown at this time.


2018 Hudson Valley Crop Assessment for Thinning

Last Modified: May 21, 2018

Dr. Poliana Francescatto (Cornell NYSAES), Win Cowgill, Professor Emeritus, Rutgers and Owner of Win Enterprises International, LLC Consulting, and Dan Donahue, CCE-ENYCHP


Apple Thinning Suggestions for 2018

Last Modified: May 21, 2018

Dr. Poliana Francescatto (Cornell NYSAES) & Win Cowgill, Professor Emeritus, Rutgers and Owner of Win Enterprises International, LLC Consulting


Spray Mixing Instructions Considering Tree Row Volume - TRV

Last Modified: May 17, 2018

Spray Mixing Instructions Considering Tree Row Volume

Terence Robinson and Poliana Francescatto

Cornell University

 

Win Cowgill

Professor Emeritus, Rutgers University


Proper Disposal of Pesticide Containers

Dan Donahue, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: May 3, 2018

Tree fruit producers generate substantial quantities of empty pesticide containers over the course of the growing season.  Back in the "old days", paper bags found their way into a burn barrel, and plastic jugs into a landfill.  Neither option is viable today, so what to do?  Landfall disposal is still an option for some types of pesticide containers, and recycling is available for others, but first, here's what's legal in New York State.


Weed Management in Newly Planted Orchards

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: May 3, 2018

Early weed control is a critical component of establishing a new planting. Newly planted fruit trees compete poorly against fast growing weeds for water and nutrients. This competition can severely limit a new block's growth, which can ultimately reduce potential yields in the third year by 50 percent. Weeds also harbor insects and diseases, provide habitat for rodents, and can serve as hosts for viruses, further complicating effective orchard management.


2018 Eastern New York Fruit & Vegetable Conference Tree Fruit Presentations

Last Modified: April 6, 2018
2018 Eastern New York Fruit & Vegetable Conference Tree Fruit Presentations

Presentations from the 2018 ENYCHP Eastern New York Fruit & Vegetable Conference held February 20th and 21st for the tree fruit sections.

First Flight: Considerations for Early "Worm" Management to NY Apple

Last Modified: April 6, 2018
First Flight: Considerations for Early "Worm" Management to NY Apple

The early ‘worm' complex found in commercial apple during the pre-bloom period begins with the emergence of the speckled green fruit worm (SGFW).


FSMA Produce Safety Rule FAQ's

Mike Basedow, Tree Fruit Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 6, 2018

On behalf of the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets, this article presents information on the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Produce Safety Rule and answers frequently-asked questions from producers.


NEWA Workshop Program Key Takeaways

Last Modified: April 6, 2018
NEWA Workshop Program Key Takeaways

ENYCHP hosted a NEWA training workshop in Voorheesville in April 2018. Here are some of the main takeaways from the training.


Late Season Rescue Thinning with Ethephon

Last Modified: June 1, 2017

Variety Thinning Recommendations for mature trees - 8 to 12mm fruit size

Last Modified: May 15, 2017

Pesticide Applicator License Pre-Exam Training Slides

Anna Wallis, Tree Fruit and Grape Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: March 22, 2017

Slides from the Pesticide Applicator License Pre-Exam Training, held March 2017 in Plattsburgh.

Bird Damage in Tree Fruits

Anne Mills, Field Technician
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: February 27, 2017

Frugivorous birds impose significant costs on tree fruit growers through direct consumption of fruit and
grower efforts to manage birds.We documented factors that influenced tree fruit bird damage from 2012
through 2014 with a coordinated field study in Michigan, New York, and Washington. For sweet cherries,
percent bird damage was higher in 2012 compared to 2013 and 2014, in Michigan and New York
compared toWashington, and in blocks with more edges adjacent to non-sweet cherry land-cover types.
These patterns appeared to be associated with fruit abundance patterns; 2012 was a particularly lowyield
year for tree fruits in Michigan and New York and percent bird damage was high. In addition,
percent bird damage to sweet and tart cherries in Michigan was higher in landscapes with low to
moderate forest cover compared to higher forest cover landscapes. 'Honeycrisp' apple blocks under
utility wires were marginally more likely to have greater bird damage compared to blocks without wires.
We recommend growers prepare bird management plans that consider the spatial distribution of fruit
and non-fruit areas of the farm. Growers should generally expect to invest more in bird management in
low-yield years, in blocks isolated from other blocks of the same crop, and in blocks where trees can
provide entry to the crop for frugivorous birds.

Installing and Monitoring American Kestrel Nest Boxes in Orchards

Anne Mills, Field Technician
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: February 27, 2017

Installing and Monitoring American Kestrel
Nest Boxes in Orchards by Megan Shave, Michigan State University

2016 Fire Blight Management Workshop

Anna Wallis, Tree Fruit and Grape Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: August 3, 2016

This is the powerpoint presentation from the August 2nd Fire Blight Workshop in Peru.

In light of the high fire blight incidence this season, Srdjan Acimovic, pathologist at the Hudson Valley Research Lab, and Dave Rosenberger, retired pathologist Hudson Valley Research Lab, offered a workshop on fire blight management. They presented information on fire blight management, conditions that led to this season's situation, and how to predict fire blight infections in the future. 

Fire Blight Sampling

Last Modified: June 8, 2016
Fire Blight Sampling

Look here to find instructions, contacts, and paperwork for submitting Fire Blight samples.

Precision Crop Load Management

Anna Wallis, Tree Fruit and Grape Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 30, 2015

Precision Crop Load Management (PCLM) is a 3-step process of managing apple crop loads more precisely:

1. Prune to a specific flower bud number
2. Chemically thin to a specific fruit number
3. Hand thin to a specific fruit number

These resources will help you make informed decisions in precision crop load management in your orchard.  


Apple IPM

Anna Wallis, Tree Fruit and Grape Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: April 24, 2015

How can you use IPM (Integrated Pest Management) to control pests in your orchard?  These presentations provide a broad overview of IPM Theory, orchard insect and disease pests, and resources available to guide your decision making, such as the NEWA weather system.  

These PPT presentations were given at the Apple IPM Training sessions on April 21 & 22, 2015.  

2012 Census: Bearing and Non-bearing Apple Acreage - Top Counties

Last Modified: July 11, 2014

Two Eastern New York counties, Ulster and Clinton, rank among the 25 apple producing counties in the United States. Columbia county ranks among the top 25 of counties located in the Eastern United States.
Apple orchards can be found in almost all of the seventeen counties that make up the Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture Program.

Data compiled by Alison De Marree, Cornell Cooperative Extension



New fungicides labeled for use in tree fruit - all Special Local Needs Labels

Deborah Breth, Integrated Pest Management
Lake Ontario Fruit Program

Last Modified: April 9, 2014

The new class of fungicides, SDHI's, are now registered for use in tree fruit.  Fontelis was registered last season, and Luna Tranquility and Merivon were registered this spring.  They are all registered in NY as "Restricted Use" fungicides.  Due to the special restrictions for use in NY, they also are Special Local Need registrations.  In order to apply these materials you must have a copy of the label and the SLN label in your possession.  You can access these SLN and label to study or print at these links. 

The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks

Craig Kahlke, Team Leader, Fruit Quality Management
Lake Ontario Fruit Program

Last Modified: January 13, 2014

The information contained in this preliminary version of HB-66 has been assembled from information prepared by nearly 100 authors from around the world. The version posted here is a revised copy of a Draft made available online in November 2002 for author and public review and comment.


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Upcoming Events

No upcoming events at this time.

Announcements

NEW ENYCHP BLOG

Visit the new CCE ENYCHP Blog at https://blogs.cornell.edu/enychp/.  New information is continuously being added and you can search for information using key words.  The blog is still in its infancy, but we are working hard to make it a useful resource for our growers!

ENYCHP Public Events Calendar



2022 Spotted Wing Drosophila Monitoring/Management

All berry farmers are watching for monitoring reports that indicate Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) adults are in their region. Mid-season berry crops should be sprayed as soon as berries begin to ripen unless you've elected to use insect exclusion netting.

- For general information about SWD, and to enroll for free monitoring reports, visit the Cornell SWD blog https://blogs.cornell.edu/swd1/.
- Click here for the 2022 Quick Guide for Pesticide Management.
- For some great instructional videos and fact sheets on insect exclusion netting, visit the University of Vermont's Ag Engineering blog.


Resources from CCE ENYCHP!

We are developing new ways to connect with the CCE ENYCHP team this year! We have a Youtube page located at this link. Check out videos on Table Grape Production, Pest Updates and the 20 Minute Ag Manager - in 4 Minutes series

We have a Facebook Page here as well as an Instagram page. We keep these places updated with current projects, events, and other interesting articles and deadlines.

There are also text alerts available. Fruit and vegetable farmers in 17 Eastern NY counties can now receive real time alerts on high risk disease and pest outbreaks texted directly to their cell phone. The Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture program, which is supported by local Cornell Cooperative Extension associations, will now offer text alerts to those that enroll in our program in 2019. 

The text alerts will be reserved for important crop alerts that could impact management decisions immediately. For instance, if there were an outbreak of Late Blight in the area, this would be transmitted to vegetable growers.

Farmers can choose the crop for which they wish to receive updates. Additionally they can request that Ag Business Alerts be sent to them. These alerts might include due dates for crop insurance deadlines, market opportunities etc.

If you have questions, please contact enychp@cornell.edu


Podcasts

Winter Greens Research Review

March 23, 2022
Winter Greens Research Review
March 17, 2022

Episode description:
In this episode, vegetable specialists Ethan Grundberg, Elisabeth Hodgdon, Jud Reid, and grower Leon Vehaba discuss winter greens production in Eastern New York. They highlight research results from the past five years that aimed to develop nitrogen fertility and heating recommendations for winter high tunnel greens production. Leon discusses his lessons learned from his experience at the Poughkeepsie Farm Project and how he made changes to his greens production as a result.

Funding and support for the research trials discussed were provided by:
Organic nitrogen fertility management in winter spinach (Willsboro Farm and Pleasant Valley Farm trials): New York Specialty Crop Block Grant Program, Northern NY Agricultural Development Program, Toward Sustainability Foundation, Paul and Sandy Arnold of Pleasant Valley Farm, Mike Davis of the Cornell Willsboro Research Farm, and Amy Ivy and Andy Galimberti of the CCE ENYCHP.

Nitrogen dynamics and yield response to minimal supplemental heating in high tunnel winter production: Northeast SARE Partnership grant and the Poughkeepsie Farm Project.

Resources:
Ethan and Leon’s report from their trials at the Poughkeepsie Farm Project:
‘Nitrogen dynamics and yield response to minimal supplemental heating in high tunnel winter production’ SARE grant final report: https://projects.sare.org/project-reports/one17-298/

Elisabeth and Jud’s results from their trials at the Willsboro Research Farm and Pleasant Valley Farm:
Willsboro Research Farm: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m94bE5DV5SI&t=10s
Pleasant Valley Farm (research results and overview of winter greens production on the farm): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eLK6jnc0YzA&t=12s

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