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Apples

Apples The 2012 USDA Census revealed that the 16 counties comprising the Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture program had over 12,500 acres devoted to apple production. The lower Hudson Valley region and the Lake Champlain region are two of the largest and most important apple production areas in New York state which ranks second in the nation for apple production and first in the country for canned apple products, although much of that crop is produced in western NY.

Apples are thought to have originated between the Caspian and the Black Seas and proof of humans’ enjoyment of apples traces back at least 750,000 years. Early settlers brought apple seeds with them to the United States. Records indicate that apples were grown in New England as early as 1630. John Chapman, also known as Johnny Appleseed, along with many other traders, missionaries and Native Americans, were responsible for extensive apple tree plantings in the Midwest and beyond.

Apples are one of the most valuable fruit crops in the United States. The 9.0 billion pound U.S. 2012 apple crop was valued at nearly $3.1 billion. Apples are the second most consumed fruit (fresh and processed uses combined), following oranges. The average person consumes 44 pounds of apple products annually.

Over the last 20 years, Cornell research and extension projects have helped growers increase yields and fruit quality by increasing tree densities and improving labor efficiency. We estimate that profitability of new high density orchards is 100 to 300% greater than the traditional low-density orchards.

In 2013, Cornell University announced the introduction of two new apple varieties, SnapDragon and RubyFrost, developed through a managed release partnership with the New York Apple Growers (NYAG). The income generated through this partnership is used to market the new varieties and support Cornell’s apple-breeding program.

For more information about tree fruit production, please visit the Cornell Tree Fruit website at http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/tree_fruit/index.htm.

Most Recent Apples Content

Pesticide Applicator License Pre-Exam Training Slides

Anna Wallis, Tree Fruit and Grape Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: March 22, 2017

Slides from the Pesticide Applicator License Pre-Exam Training, held March 2017 in Plattsburgh.

Bird Damage in Tree Fruits

Anne Mills, Field Technician
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: February 27, 2017

Frugivorous birds impose significant costs on tree fruit growers through direct consumption of fruit and
grower efforts to manage birds.We documented factors that influenced tree fruit bird damage from 2012
through 2014 with a coordinated field study in Michigan, New York, and Washington. For sweet cherries,
percent bird damage was higher in 2012 compared to 2013 and 2014, in Michigan and New York
compared toWashington, and in blocks with more edges adjacent to non-sweet cherry land-cover types.
These patterns appeared to be associated with fruit abundance patterns; 2012 was a particularly lowyield
year for tree fruits in Michigan and New York and percent bird damage was high. In addition,
percent bird damage to sweet and tart cherries in Michigan was higher in landscapes with low to
moderate forest cover compared to higher forest cover landscapes. 'Honeycrisp' apple blocks under
utility wires were marginally more likely to have greater bird damage compared to blocks without wires.
We recommend growers prepare bird management plans that consider the spatial distribution of fruit
and non-fruit areas of the farm. Growers should generally expect to invest more in bird management in
low-yield years, in blocks isolated from other blocks of the same crop, and in blocks where trees can
provide entry to the crop for frugivorous birds.

Installing and Monitoring American Kestrel Nest Boxes in Orchards

Anne Mills, Field Technician
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: February 27, 2017

Installing and Monitoring American Kestrel
Nest Boxes in Orchards by Megan Shave, Michigan State University


More Apples Content

2017 Winter Tree Fruit School Presentations
2016 Fire Blight Management Workshop
Fire Blight Sampling
Presentations - 2016 Winter Tree Fruit Schools
Precision Crop Load Management
Apple IPM
Presentations - 2015 Winter Tree Fruit Schools
2012 Census: Bearing and Non-bearing Apple Acreage - Top Counties
New fungicides labeled for use in tree fruit - all Special Local Needs Labels
The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks
more crops
Apples

Apples

Apricots

Apricots

Asparagus

Asparagus

Beets

Beets

Blueberries

Blueberries

Broccoli

Broccoli

Brussels Sprouts

Brussels Sprouts

Cabbage

Cabbage

Carrots

Carrots

Cauliflower

Cauliflower

Cherries

Cherries

Cucumbers

Cucumbers

Dry Beans

Dry Beans

Eggplant

Eggplant

Ethnic Vegetables

Ethnic Vegetables

Garlic

Garlic

Grapes

Grapes

Horseradish

Horseradish

Kohlrabi

Kohlrabi

Leeks

Leeks

Lettuce / Leafy Greens

Lettuce / Leafy Greens

Melons

Melons

Nectarines

Nectarines

Onions

Onions

Parsnips

Parsnips

Peaches

Peaches

Pears

Pears

Peas

Peas

Peppers

Peppers

Plums

Plums

Potatoes

Potatoes

Pumpkins / Gourds

Pumpkins / Gourds

Radishes

Radishes

Raspberries / Blackberries

Raspberries / Blackberries

Rhubarb

Rhubarb

Rutabaga

Rutabaga

Snap Beans

Snap Beans

Squash - Summer

Squash - Summer

Squash- Winter

Squash- Winter

Strawberries

Strawberries

Sweet Corn

Sweet Corn

Sweet Potatoes

Sweet Potatoes

Tomatoes

Tomatoes

Turnips

Turnips

more crops
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Upcoming Events

Effective Orchard Spraying & Navigating NEWA Workshop- Champlain Valley

March 28, 2017
8:00am- 4:00pm
Chazy, NY

Effective Orchard Spraying - Morning
Understand how to improve your timeliness and therefore apply sprays when needed and not be forever chasing the calendar. Correct application at the correct time will allow you to make better use of your time and materials over the season.

Navigating NEWA - Afternoon 
Learn the ins-and-outs of the NEWA system (Network for Environment and Weather Applications). Learn how to efficiently navigate the NEWA interface, including how to get weather data, access station specific pages, and effectively utilize models for insects, diseases, crop thinning, and irrigation.

Bring your Laptop or Smart Device!!

***PRE-REGISTRATION IS REQUIRED! ***


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Hudson Valley Orchard Scouting & NEWA Orchard Models Workshop

March 30, 2017
10:00am-3:00pm
Highland, NY

Interested in learning how utilize the NEWA orchard models and learn pest scouting techniques to improve your orchard pest management?  NEWA Coordinator Dan Olmstead, HVRL entomologist Peter Jentsch, HVRL plant pathologist Dr. Srdjan Acimovic, and ENYCHP tree fruit specialist Dan Donahue will be presenting a workshop at the Cornell Hudson Valley Research Lab on March 30th from 10 am to 3:00 pm. 
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Pruning Demonstration Day

March 30, 2017
2pm-5pm
Red Hook, NY

You are invited to join Laura McDermott and Jim O'Connell, Berry Educators for Cornell Cooperative Extension of Eastern NY, for a pruning demonstration on mature blueberries on Thursday, March 30th.

This workshop is free, but please preregister with Jim O’Connell no later than March 28th, 2017 by email (jmo98@cornell.edu) or phone (845-943-9814) so we know how many people to expect. 

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Announcements

White Rot Update

NOW AVAILABLE: White Rot Fact Sheet: Click Here

Earlier in June I sent a garlic sample to the diagnostic lab hoping that I was wrong. The sample was covered in small black sclerotia, the size of poppy seeds, and white fungal hyphae crept up the stem. The results, unfortunately, matched the field diagnosis: White Rot. Within a couple days additional calls came from up and down the Hudson Valley as well as one in Western NY with similar suspicions. These samples have also gone to the lab for verification, but it looks like the latest pest to move back into the state is this nasty fungus. 

White Rot, Sclerotinia cepivorum, decimated the onion industry in New York in the 1930's before being eradicated through careful management. More recently, in 2003, it infected 10,000 acres of garlic in California, leading to the abandonment of some garlic fields and adoption of strict containment rules. White rot has been confirmed in Northeastern states over the last decade as well, with New York being one of the last to discover the disease.

The primary reason that White Rot is such a concern is because the sclerotia, or reproductive structures, can remain dormant in the soil for up to 40 years, attacking any allium crop planted into the soil under favorable conditions. This spring was ideal for infection due to the period of cool, moist weather we had. Optimal temperature for infection is 60-65 degrees F, but infection can occur anywhere from 50-75 degrees F.
Once garlic has white rot, it generally declines rapidly. Leaves will yellow and the plant will wilt, not unlike a severe fusarium infection. However, unlike with fusarium, white rot infected bulbs are covered in black sclerotia and white fungus. To add to the confusion, another disease CAN look similar. Botrytis also causes black sclerotia and white fungal growth. However, Botrytis sclerotia are quite large, often larger than a pencil eraser.

So, what do we do now? We're still working on long-term management strategies, but the most important steps to take now are vigilance when culling (look at the plants you are pulling for symptoms like you see in this article, and if they are present, call us to take a sample and have the disease verified) and, if you see anything suspicious, reduction of movement of inoculum. The main ways diseases get moved around are by dumping culls (compost, field edges, etc) and my moving soil on equipment. Throw away your culls, and wash equipment that may have come in contact with suspicious garlic or the soil it is growing in. Everything from cultivation equipment to harvest bins should be cleaned. 

We will keep learning about this disease and will keep sending out information, particularly to help you make decisions about what to sell and buy. For now, remember that the west coast has learned to manage the disease, and we will too. -Crystal Stewart, ENYCHP




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