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Apples

Apples The 2012 USDA Census revealed that the 16 counties comprising the Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture program had over 12,500 acres devoted to apple production. The lower Hudson Valley region and the Lake Champlain region are two of the largest and most important apple production areas in New York state which ranks second in the nation for apple production and first in the country for canned apple products, although much of that crop is produced in western NY.

Apples are thought to have originated between the Caspian and the Black Seas and proof of humansí enjoyment of apples traces back at least 750,000 years. Early settlers brought apple seeds with them to the United States. Records indicate that apples were grown in New England as early as 1630. John Chapman, also known as Johnny Appleseed, along with many other traders, missionaries and Native Americans, were responsible for extensive apple tree plantings in the Midwest and beyond.

Apples are one of the most valuable fruit crops in the United States. The 9.0 billion pound U.S. 2012 apple crop was valued at nearly $3.1 billion. Apples are the second most consumed fruit (fresh and processed uses combined), following oranges. The average person consumes 44 pounds of apple products annually.

Over the last 20 years, Cornell research and extension projects have helped growers increase yields and fruit quality by increasing tree densities and improving labor efficiency. We estimate that profitability of new high density orchards is 100 to 300% greater than the traditional low-density orchards.

In 2013, Cornell University announced the introduction of two new apple varieties, SnapDragon and RubyFrost, developed through a managed release partnership with the New York Apple Growers (NYAG). The income generated through this partnership is used to market the new varieties and support Cornellís apple-breeding program.

For more information about tree fruit production, please visit the Cornell Tree Fruit website at http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/tree_fruit/index.htm.

Most Recent Apples Content

Pesticide Applicator License Pre-Exam Training Slides

Anna Wallis, Tree Fruit and Grape Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: March 22, 2017

Slides from the Pesticide Applicator License Pre-Exam Training, held March 2017 in Plattsburgh.

Bird Damage in Tree Fruits

Anne Mills, Field Technician
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: February 27, 2017

Frugivorous birds impose significant costs on tree fruit growers through direct consumption of fruit and
grower efforts to manage birds.We documented factors that influenced tree fruit bird damage from 2012
through 2014 with a coordinated field study in Michigan, New York, and Washington. For sweet cherries,
percent bird damage was higher in 2012 compared to 2013 and 2014, in Michigan and New York
compared toWashington, and in blocks with more edges adjacent to non-sweet cherry land-cover types.
These patterns appeared to be associated with fruit abundance patterns; 2012 was a particularly lowyield
year for tree fruits in Michigan and New York and percent bird damage was high. In addition,
percent bird damage to sweet and tart cherries in Michigan was higher in landscapes with low to
moderate forest cover compared to higher forest cover landscapes. 'Honeycrisp' apple blocks under
utility wires were marginally more likely to have greater bird damage compared to blocks without wires.
We recommend growers prepare bird management plans that consider the spatial distribution of fruit
and non-fruit areas of the farm. Growers should generally expect to invest more in bird management in
low-yield years, in blocks isolated from other blocks of the same crop, and in blocks where trees can
provide entry to the crop for frugivorous birds.

Installing and Monitoring American Kestrel Nest Boxes in Orchards

Anne Mills, Field Technician
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

Last Modified: February 27, 2017

Installing and Monitoring American Kestrel
Nest Boxes in Orchards by Megan Shave, Michigan State University


More Apples Content

2017 Winter Tree Fruit School Presentations
2016 Fire Blight Management Workshop
Fire Blight Sampling
Presentations - 2016 Winter Tree Fruit Schools
Precision Crop Load Management
Apple IPM
Presentations - 2015 Winter Tree Fruit Schools
2012 Census: Bearing and Non-bearing Apple Acreage - Top Counties
New fungicides labeled for use in tree fruit - all Special Local Needs Labels
The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks
more crops
Apples

Apples

Apricots

Apricots

Asparagus

Asparagus

Beets

Beets

Blueberries

Blueberries

Broccoli

Broccoli

Brussels Sprouts

Brussels Sprouts

Cabbage

Cabbage

Carrots

Carrots

Cauliflower

Cauliflower

Cherries

Cherries

Cucumbers

Cucumbers

Dry Beans

Dry Beans

Eggplant

Eggplant

Ethnic Vegetables

Ethnic Vegetables

Garlic

Garlic

Grapes

Grapes

Horseradish

Horseradish

Kohlrabi

Kohlrabi

Leeks

Leeks

Lettuce / Leafy Greens

Lettuce / Leafy Greens

Melons

Melons

Nectarines

Nectarines

Onions

Onions

Parsnips

Parsnips

Peaches

Peaches

Pears

Pears

Peas

Peas

Peppers

Peppers

Plums

Plums

Potatoes

Potatoes

Pumpkins / Gourds

Pumpkins / Gourds

Radishes

Radishes

Raspberries / Blackberries

Raspberries / Blackberries

Rhubarb

Rhubarb

Rutabaga

Rutabaga

Snap Beans

Snap Beans

Squash - Summer

Squash - Summer

Squash- Winter

Squash- Winter

Strawberries

Strawberries

Sweet Corn

Sweet Corn

Sweet Potatoes

Sweet Potatoes

Tomatoes

Tomatoes

Turnips

Turnips

more crops
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Upcoming Events

Hands-on Tomato Pruning Workshop

May 3, 2017
4-6pm
Fort Plain, NY

Join High Tunnel Specialist Amy Ivy and Crystal Stewart for a hands-on tomato pruning demonstration in the high tunnel. We'll talk about when to prune, how to prune for earliness and yield, and how to prune both determinate and indeterminate varieties

*DEC credit has been applied for

view details

Bramble Pruning Workshop - Rulf's Orchard

May 4, 2017
3:00pm-5pm
Peru, NY

Focus will be on pruning to increase production and help control Spotted Wing Drosophila. General pest management and culture will also be discussed. There is no charge for these workshops, but we would like folks to register so that we know how to contact you. Please register here or call Marcie at 518-272-4210.
view details

Bramble Pruning Workshop - Cashin's Farm

May 9, 2017
3:00pm-5pm
Fultonville, NY

Focus will be on pruning to increase production and help control Spotted Wing Drosophila. General pest management and culture will also be discussed. There is no charge for these workshops, but we would like folks to register so that we know how to contact you. Please register here or call Marcie at 518-272-4210.
view details
view calendar of events

Announcements

Grape Specialist Hiring in Eastern New York

Eastern NY Grape Industry Growth Prompts Marketing Initiatives, Specialist Hiring
Click Here to See Full Article view details here


Eastern New York grape and wine industry growth is sparking innovative marketing initiatives and the hiring of a new regional grape specialist.

The "October 2016 Grape Production in the Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture Region" report by Elizabeth Higgins, business management specialist, Hudson Valley Lab, Highland, NY, quantifies industry growth as:
. a 34 percent increase in the number of grape-growing operations 2007-2012 with a 50 percent increase in grape acres,
. the 2001-2012 doubling of grape production acres in Ulster, Columbia, Dutchess and Orange counties,
. 2001-2012 growth from nearly zero to 100-plus grape acres in Clinton, Essex, Saratoga and Washington counties, and
. 108 wineries affiliated with local grape production; with new wineries expected.


White Rot Update

NOW AVAILABLE: White Rot Fact Sheet: Click Here

Earlier in June I sent a garlic sample to the diagnostic lab hoping that I was wrong. The sample was covered in small black sclerotia, the size of poppy seeds, and white fungal hyphae crept up the stem. The results, unfortunately, matched the field diagnosis: White Rot. Within a couple days additional calls came from up and down the Hudson Valley as well as one in Western NY with similar suspicions. These samples have also gone to the lab for verification, but it looks like the latest pest to move back into the state is this nasty fungus. 

White Rot, Sclerotinia cepivorum, decimated the onion industry in New York in the 1930's before being eradicated through careful management. More recently, in 2003, it infected 10,000 acres of garlic in California, leading to the abandonment of some garlic fields and adoption of strict containment rules. White rot has been confirmed in Northeastern states over the last decade as well, with New York being one of the last to discover the disease.

The primary reason that White Rot is such a concern is because the sclerotia, or reproductive structures, can remain dormant in the soil for up to 40 years, attacking any allium crop planted into the soil under favorable conditions. This spring was ideal for infection due to the period of cool, moist weather we had. Optimal temperature for infection is 60-65 degrees F, but infection can occur anywhere from 50-75 degrees F.
Once garlic has white rot, it generally declines rapidly. Leaves will yellow and the plant will wilt, not unlike a severe fusarium infection. However, unlike with fusarium, white rot infected bulbs are covered in black sclerotia and white fungus. To add to the confusion, another disease CAN look similar. Botrytis also causes black sclerotia and white fungal growth. However, Botrytis sclerotia are quite large, often larger than a pencil eraser.

So, what do we do now? We're still working on long-term management strategies, but the most important steps to take now are vigilance when culling (look at the plants you are pulling for symptoms like you see in this article, and if they are present, call us to take a sample and have the disease verified) and, if you see anything suspicious, reduction of movement of inoculum. The main ways diseases get moved around are by dumping culls (compost, field edges, etc) and my moving soil on equipment. Throw away your culls, and wash equipment that may have come in contact with suspicious garlic or the soil it is growing in. Everything from cultivation equipment to harvest bins should be cleaned. 

We will keep learning about this disease and will keep sending out information, particularly to help you make decisions about what to sell and buy. For now, remember that the west coast has learned to manage the disease, and we will too. -Crystal Stewart, ENYCHP




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