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First Flight: Considerations for Early "Worm" Management to NY Apple

April 6, 2018

First Flight: Considerations for Early "Worm" Management to NY Apple

First Flight: Considerations for Early ‘Worm' Management to NY Apple.

Peter Jentsch, Entomology, Cornell's Hudson Valley Lab, Highland   pjj5@cornell.edu

The early ‘worm' complex found in commercial apple during the pre-bloom period begins with the emergence of the speckled green fruit worm (SGFW). In Highland, we traditionally have our first flight of SGFW in early March, yet in 2018 our first capture of this insect occurred on 2nd of April this season. This insect group is comprised of at least three different lepidopteran species whose larvae feed on the foliage, flowering parts and developing fruit of pear and apple. An in-depth look at this insect complex can be found in a PDF of the 1974 NYSAES station bulletin by Chapman, P.J., Link, S.E. 1974. (http://fls.cals.cornell.edu/OCRPDF/50a.pdf )

In the Hudson Valley it's a fairly predictable event to catch the SGFW adult flying during the warmest days of early March, yet the damage to fruit can be sporadic from year to year. This Green Fruit Worm (GFW) group, comprised of many species includes the speckled green Fruitworm, Othosia hibisci (Guenee), the widestriped green Fruitworm (Lithophane antennata), and the humped green fruitworm (Amphipyra pyramidoides) among others that are aptly named after predominate physical features the larvae exhibit (Image 4). Many other lepidopteran follow the GFW complex during the pre-bloom period and include the redbanded leafroller, spotted tentiform leafminer, oriental fruitworm, lesser apple worm, codling moth and emerging larval populations of overwintering obliquebanded leafroller (OBLR). The GFW and OBLR are of greatest concern to commercial fruit growers prior to and shortly after bloom with many control measures used against these two insects effective in managing the secondary lepidopteran pests.

The adult GFW complex are members of the Noctuid family and as their name implies, fly at night. Flight begins during apple bud development and peaks at tight cluster with flight completed by the pink stage (Graph 1). GFW adults have a wingspread of about 1.5 inches. The forewings are grayish pink; each is marked near the middle with 2 purplish gray spots, outlined by a thin pale border with the hind wings lighter in color than the forewings (Image 1). Females begin oviposition on twigs and developing leaves when apples are in the half-inch green stage. GFW eggs are about 3/8" in diameter and 3/16" in height. GFW eggs are white with a grayish tinge and ridges radiating from the center (Image 1). The egg takes on a mottled appearance shortly before hatch. A female will deposit only 1 or 2 at any given site, laying several hundred eggs from late March to mid-May in the Hudson Valley.

In the northern regions of the Champlain Valley and throughout the mid-Hudson Valley, the GFW can be a severe pest on early developing apple. The GFW larva pass through 6 instars, the early stages possessing a grayish green body, brown head and thoracic shield. Mature larvae, about 1.5" in length, have a light green body and head. A number of narrow white stripes run along the top of the body with a wide, more pronounced white line running along each side. The areas between the stripes are speckled white. Early stages of larvae feed on foliage and flower buds, found inside rolled leaves or clusters (Image 2).  Mature larvae will damage flower clusters during bloom, feeding on developing fruit and foliage 2 weeks after petal fall with peak populations during bloom (Graph 2). The fruit remaining on the tree will have both shallow and deeply indented corky scars at harvest, indistinguishable from obliquebanded leafroller injury (Image 3). Larva then drop to the ground, burrow into the soil to pupate and overwinter 2-4 inches into the soil to emerge the following spring as adults.

Control: In years of heavy infestation pressure from GFW, as much as 10% fruit injury can occur. Employing adult pheromone trap captures will provide growers with information on GFW presence and the onset of adult flight. Scouting for larva to determine levels of pest pressure should begin shortly after tight cluster. Although NY has not developed thresholds for this pest, a provisional threshold of 1 larva or feeding scar per tree has been used to begin applications in Massachusetts. A more conservative threshold should be applied in high valued apple varieties on dwarfing rootstock of high-density planting systems. If GFW populations historically cause economic injury to fruit, management should begin from tight cluster to pink to target the pre-bloom Lepidoptera complex. The GFW complex and OBLR are less susceptible or resistant to most organophosphates, with the exception of chlorpyrifos (Lorsban, IRAC Class 1B). If Lorsban were used as a pre-bloom foliar application, it would also control San Jose scale. Asana, Ambush / Pounce, Baythroid, Danitol, Warrior, pyrethroids in IRAC Class 3, tend to have highest efficacy against larva under cooler temperatures (<72oF). Generally, as temperature increases larva metabolize / detoxify pyrethroid chemistries more effectively, while OP's, Carbamates and newer chemistries tend to be more stable and less susceptible to this phenomenon.

The Bt products such as Biobit, Dipel, Javelin, and MVP (IRAC 11 B2) also have a low impact on beneficial mite and are very effective against OBLR and the GFW complex. The Bt products can be used through bloom as needed and their use should be optimized employing multiple applications at 5-7 day intervals at the low-labeled rate. Intrepid (methoxyfen-ozide) (IRAC 18A) another reduced risk insecticide very effective against the larva, imitates the natural insect molting hormone and works by initiating the molting process. Intrepid is quite safe to birds, fish, and most beneficial insects. Proclaim (emamectin benzoate) (IRAC 6), a second-generation avermectin insecticide related to Agri-Mek, is also an excellent insecticide against the GFW complex while having a low impact on beneficial mites. If European red mite (ERM) has emerged, Proclaim, used with a penetrating adjuvant, would reduce early ERM populations. Altacor (chlorantraniliprole), Belt (flubendiamide) (IRAC Class 28), Delegate (spinetoram) and Entrust (spinosad) (IRAC Class 5), have been used successfully against the surface feeding and internal Lep. complex. However, the placement for these materials has been predominately at the onset of hatch of the summer generation larva of OBLR, providing excellent results in NY State.

As we would be managing the overwintering OBLR larva at the same time as we would the control of GFW, we need to consider these applications in light of OBLR management through out the remainder of the season. Since the development of insecticide resistance is dependent on the volume and frequency of applications of insecticides and the inherent characteristics of the insect species, we should limit one insecticide class to a single generation of pest for resistance management purposes. The present model for insecticide resistance management (IRM) practices then is to use a single insecticide class for a single generation of insect pest. For example, an IRM program against the lepidopteran complex, specifically OBLR, would use effective insecticides listed above (X, Y, Z) in three different IRAC classes (A, B, C) throughout the season.

Insecticide X (Class A) 1 application @ TC-P for GFW, or PF for OBLR, RBLR, LAW, OFM larva

Insecticide Y (Class B) 2 applications @ 14d; first emergence of 1st brood OBLR larva

Insecticide Z (Class C) 1 application @ first emergence of 2nd brood OBLR larva if needed.

Given the historic failures the apple industry has experienced managing the leafroller and internal worm complex, we should consider designing programs to maintain the effectiveness of these excellent IPM tools beginning early in the season, before the heat of the battle begins.

Adapted from Chapman P. J. And Lienk S. E.  Green Fruitworms. New York's Food And Life Sciences Bulletin No. 50, Entomology (Geneva) #6. October 1974  http://fls.cals.cornell.edu/OCRPDF/50a.pdf



First Flight: Considerations for Early "Worm" Management to NY Apple (pdf; 1469KB)

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Upcoming Events

Farm Financial Management Tuesdays - Planning for a Change or Exiting Your Farm Business

November 30, 2021 : Assessing the Financial Ramifications of and Options for Significant Change to Your Farm Business

The inflationary economy is upon us! The huge influx of money into the US economy following the COVID-19 pandemic has manufactured high prices and in turn increased operating costs for farm business thus forcing many businesses into net operating loss situations. Other farms are facing high labor costs or chronic labor shortages.  Some farms have taken on debt loads that make these increased costs unaffordable.  Depending on the stage in the business lifecycle, it may make sense to change enterprises or exit the farming business entirely. 

Join CCE ENYCH Ag Business Educator, Elizabeth Higgins, and CAAHP Ag Business Educator, Dayton Maxwell, for a one-hour program to learn about the financial aspects of changing or exiting a farm business. 

December 7, 2021 : The Family and Emotional Component; Shifting Business Direction and Life After Farming

As farm business enterprises are changed or disbanded, the emotional stress can be tremendous, especially when individuals and family members maintain diminished assurance relative to future security. 

Join Gabriel Gurley and Brenda O'Brien of New York FarmNet for a one-hour program focused on successfully navigating the emotional turmoil of a family farm business transition.

December 14, 2021 : New Venture Creation; Shifting Business Direction and Life After Farming

Change creates opportunity and new opportunities are certain when farm businesses change or end. 

Join Gabriel Gurley of New York FarmNet for a one-hour overview of identifying ways and means to capitalize on new opportunities resulting from farm business transitions.

 

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Remote Produce Safety Alliance Grower Training Course - Dec 2021

December 8 - December 9, 2021

A grower training course developed by the Produce Safety Alliance (PSA) that meets the regulatory requirements of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) for farms subject to the Produce Safety Rule. All farms are welcome to attend to learn about recommended food safety practices for growing, handling, and storing fresh produce. Course registration fee includes a course manual and certificate of course completion by the Association of Food and Drug Officials (AFDO).

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Tax Management for Beginning and Small Farm Businesses

January 18, 2022

Tax Management for Beginning and Small Farm Businesses.

A one-night virtual meeting for beginning and part-time farmers that provides useful tax information enabling participants to be make better tax decisions for their business.   Federal and state income taxes will be covered. Tax regulations specific to NYS will be covered as well. 


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Announcements

2021 SWD Insecticide Quick Guide

Prepare your sprayer and make sure you have the insecticides of choice on hand. Click on the following link for the revised 2021 SWD Insecticide Quick Guide: https://rvpadmin.cce.cornell.edu/uploads/doc_981.pdf

Current recommendations are to use the most effective material you can early in the spray program - even though the population seems small. The strategy is to keep the population small for as long as possible as it's very hard to gain control after the numbers have ballooned.  

USDA Offers Disaster Assistance for Producers

USDA Offers Disaster Assistance for Producers Facing Inclement Weather

Severe weather events create significant challenges and often result in catastrophic loss for agricultural producers. Despite every attempt to mitigate risk, your operation may suffer losses. USDA offers several programs to help with recovery.

Risk Management
For producers who have risk protection through Federal Crop Insurance or the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP), we want to remind you to report crop damage to your crop insurance agent or the local Farm Service Agency (FSA) office.

If you have crop insurance, contact your agency within 72 hours of discovering damage and be sure to follow up in writing within 15 days. If you have NAP coverage, file a Notice of Loss (also called Form CCC-576) within 15 days of loss becoming apparent, except for hand-harvested crops, which should be reported within 72 hours.

Disaster Assistance
USDA also offers disaster assistance programs, which is especially important to livestock, fruit and vegetable, specialty and perennial crop producers who have fewer risk management options.
First, the Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP) and Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybee and Farm-raised Fish Program (ELAP) reimburses producers for a portion of the value of livestock, poultry and other animals that died as a result of a qualifying natural disaster event or for loss of grazing acres, feed and forage. And, the Livestock Forage Disaster Program (LFP) provides assistance to producers of grazed forage crop acres that have suffered crop loss due to a qualifying drought. Livestock producers suffering the impacts of drought can also request Emergency Haying and Grazing on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) acres.

For LIP and ELAP, you will need to file a Notice of Loss for livestock and grazing or feed losses within 30 days and honeybee losses within 15 days. For TAP, you will need to file a program application within 90 days.

Documentation
It's critical to keep accurate records to document all losses following this devastating cold weather event. Livestock producers are advised to document beginning livestock numbers by taking time and date-stamped video or pictures prior to after the loss.

Other common documentation options include:
- Purchase records
- Production records
- Vaccination records
- Bank or other loan documents
- Third-party certification

Additional Resources
On farmers.gov, the Disaster Assistance Discovery Tool, Disaster-at-a-Glance fact sheet, and Farm Loan Discovery Tool can help you determine program or loan options.

While we never want to have to implement disaster programs, we are here to help. To file a Notice of Loss or to ask questions about available programs, contact the Rensselaer County USDA Service Center @ 518 271 1889 ext. 2. The office is open for business, however due to pandemic restrictions all in-person visits require an appointment.


Resources from CCE ENYCHP!

We are developing new ways to connect with the CCE ENYCHP team this year! We have a Youtube page located at this link. Check out videos on Table Grape Production, Pest Updates and the 20 Minute Ag Manager - in 4 Minutes series

We have a Facebook Page here as well as an Instagram page. We keep these places updated with current projects, events, and other interesting articles and deadlines.

There are also text alerts available. Fruit and vegetable farmers in 17 Eastern NY counties can now receive real time alerts on high risk disease and pest outbreaks texted directly to their cell phone. The Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture program, which is supported by local Cornell Cooperative Extension associations, will now offer text alerts to those that enroll in our program in 2019. 

The text alerts will be reserved for important crop alerts that could impact management decisions immediately. For instance, if there were an outbreak of Late Blight in the area, this would be transmitted to vegetable growers.

Farmers can choose the crop for which they wish to receive updates. Additionally they can request that Ag Business Alerts be sent to them. These alerts might include due dates for crop insurance deadlines, market opportunities etc.

If you have questions, please contact enychp@cornell.edu


Podcasts

FSMA Updates with Gretchen Wall

August 10, 2021
In this episode, Elisabeth Hodgdon discusses news and updates related to FSMA’s Produce Safety Rule with food safety specialist Gretchen Wall. They discuss inspection schedules for the 2021 season, On Farm Readiness Reviews, water testing, new resources available for growers, and more.

Resources:
Records Required by the FSMA Produce Safety Rule, by K. Woods, D. Stoeckel, B. Fick, G. Wall, and E.A. Bihn. This fact sheet includes an explanation of required records as well as printable record templates:
https://producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu/sites/producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu/files/shared/documents/Records-Required-by-the-FSMA-PSR.pdf

Upcoming Remote, Online, and In-Person Produce Safety Alliance Grower Training Courses:
https://producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu/training/grower-training-courses/upcoming-grower-trainings/

Interactive Google map of water testing labs, created by the Northeast Center to Advance Food Safety:
https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/viewer?amp%3Busp=sharing&mid=1C8KHM6jJszj9auYQttUbVtPKtb4eEBSJ&ll=41.22288057139939%2C-78.58548244999999&z=5\

Interested in joining the Produce Safety Alliance listserv? Sign up here to receive FSMA updates, notifications of educational opportunities and new resources, and more:
https://producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu/

Contact Information:
To schedule an On Farm Readiness Review or discuss your farm’s FSMA PSR coverage status, contact Steve Schirmer (315-487–0852 or steve.schirmer@agriculture.ny.gov), or Aaron Finley (518-474-5235 or aaron.finley@agriculture.ny.gov).

Episode speakers:
Elisabeth Hodgdon, ENYCHP vegetable specialist: 518-650-5323 or eh528@cornell.edu
Gretchen Wall, Produce Safety Alliance coordinator and Northeast Regional Extension Associate: 607-882-3087 or glw53@cornell.edu

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