Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture Enrollment

Program Areas

  • Food Safety
  • Variety Evaluation
  • Market Development
  • Pest Management
  • Cultural Practices

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  • Telephone / Email Consultations
  • Newsletter
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  • Educational Meetings & Conferences
  • In-Field Educational Opportunities
  • On-Farm Research Trials

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Allium Leafminer Spring Flight Update

Ethan Grundberg, Vegetable Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

May 31, 2018

The spring flight of the new invasive insect pest, the allium leafminer, began in late April with the first confirmed activity in the Red Hook area. Adults have gradually emerged from pupae in the soil and in cull piles for the past four weeks and have been feeding and laying eggs on allium leaves during that time. The diagnostic sign of this adult feeding and egg-laying is a vertical line of dots, typically found near the tip of host crop leaves. These oviposition scars are sometimes accompanied by faint, mostly vertical lines that run down the leaf blade toward the soil. These "mines" are caused by allium leafminer (ALM) maggots feeding on the interior leaf tissue.

We are still actively studying this new pest to better guide allium growers in the region on best management practices. Here are some important updates based on that work:

1.  Not all oviposition scars are egg-laying sites: Adult females use their ovipositor (egg-laying organ) to create the small dots in the leaf tissue. Adults feed on the plant exudates that are released through those physical wounds. We are studying leaf samples from multiple allium species during the adult flight period to try to determine what percentage of those oviposition locations are, on average, active egg-laying sites versus feeding sites. What is certain at this point is that NOT ALL OVIPOSITION SCARS ARE ACTIVE EGG-LAYING SITES. That means that even if you find 20 oviposition dots on a leaf, there are likely far fewer eggs in the leaf tissue. Fewer eggs mean fewer maggots, which means less potential for significant damage to crops.

2.  I still found several adult flies in the field on Monday, May 21st. Though some adults may still be active, I am confident that we are past the period of peak flight and that there is little risk of additional egg-laying on crops at this time. THIS MEANS THAT GROWERS USING ROW COVER OR INSECT NETTING TO EXCLUDE ADULTS CAN REMOVE THEM AT THIS POINT WITH LITTLE RISK OF ADDITIONAL ALM DAMAGE. Maggots will continue to hatch from recently laid eggs and further damage crops for the next couple of weeks.

3.  We are still collaborating with the Cornell entomologist Dr. Brian Nault on insecticide efficacy evaluations of both conventional and OMRI products. We will update growers prior to the beginning of thefall flight of ALM (anticipated in mid-to-late September) with findings from those trials. If extensive maggot mining is observed, Radiant SC (spinetoram, IRAC group 5) mixed with a penetrating surfactant (such as LI 700) can be used with a 1-day Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI) on most allium crops for dipteran leafminer control. Since the maggots are inside the leaf tissue, only active ingredients with translaminar (penetrates locally through the leaf tissue where the product makes contact) or systemic (is absorbed through the leaf tissue and moved upward throughout the plant vascular system) activity will reduce damage. Contact insecticides, such as pyrethroids (IRAC Group 3A) will NOT be effective at this point.

4. We have confirmed ALM activity as far north as Schoharie and Grafton and as far east as Berkshire County, Massachusetts. ALLIUM GROWERS AS FAR NORTH AS GLENS FALLS SHOULD BE PREPARED TO PROTECT FALL ALLIUMS FROM ALM and be on the lookout for alerts from the ENYCHP team once the fall emergence in confirmed.

 If you suspect ALM activity on your farm and would like further recommendations for management, feel free to reach out to me directly at 617-455-1893 or Teresa Rusinek at tr28@cornell.edu.

 

almAdult allium leafminer fly with characteristic vertical line of oviposition feeding and egg-laying scars (Photo E Grundberg)



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Upcoming Events

Champlain Valley Tree Fruit Grower Input Meeting

November 30, 2022
Plattsburgh, NY

We need your input!  Mike will be holding a Champlain Valley tree fruit grower input session on November 30 in Plattsburgh at the Clinton County CCE office. Mike will review his 2022 research and extension activities. We would then like to hear from you to set priorities for future tree fruit research and education needs, and to get your input for speakers for our 2023 winter meetings. 

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How Profitable Will My New Orchard Investment Be? Zoom Series

December 5, 2022 : Looking at the Big Financial Picture for Your Farm

Your farm's big-3 financial records (balance sheet, income statement and statement of cash flow) and how to use them to assess your overall financial situation. This information will help you assess what types of investments are likely to be viable for your farm business and whether or not you are likely to be able to use credit to finance that investment.  We will specifically cover Farm Profitability, Cash Flow, and Key Financial Ratios.

December 6, 2022 : Business Strategy and the Farm Value Chain

How do you create value?  How do you differentiate yourself from your competitors?  In other words - what is your farm's business strategy?  Your investments should be in line with your strategy.  Different business strategies will result in investments in different parts of the Farm Business Value Chain.  Farm Business Value Chain - full range of activities needed to create a product or service.

December 7, 2022 : Using Your Farm's Financial Data to Make Management Decisions

Identifying the Enterprises in Your Value Chain.  Your Profit Centers and Cost Centers.  We will cover: Direct vs Indirect Costs and Cost Allocation and Variable vs Fixed Costs and Relevant Range (when does a fixed cost become a variable cost?)

December 8, 2022 : Operating Budgets and Strategic Planning

Operating budgets are the overall financial plan for the business.  You can use a budget based on your current situation as the base to model new scenarios.

December 12, 2022 : Enterprise Budgets

It is more time-consuming to develop detailed budgets for your enterprises, but it is worthwhile to do this for area where you are considering making major investments.  We will demonstrate how to move from an operating budget to an enterprise budget to model specific scenarios within that enterprise. 

December 13, 2022 : 5 Step Decision-making Process for Capital Projects and Long-term Investments

Introduces a structured process for a manager to go through to decide among options for long-term investments, projects or changes to the farm business.

December 14, 2022 : Cost Volume Profit Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis

As you change your prices, volume of sales or costs of production how does your profit change?  What is your break-even point and what output level do you need to achieve a target income? We will also cover sensitivity analysis that will help you see how your results will vary over a range of likely scenarios from best case to worst case.  This will help you assess the riskiness of your plan.

December 15, 2022 : Capital Budgeting Tools - Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Payback Period

Capital budgeting is defined as the process used to determine whether capital assets are worth investing in. it's the process of asking: is an asset worth the resources it requires?  Capital assets are usually long-term investments like new equipment, facilities, and other infrastructure upgrades. By incorporating strategically planned capital budgeting into their financial processes, companies can more effectively determine and prioritize which projects, programs and other investment assets could be most financially beneficial in the long-term.

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SAVE THE DATES

December 13 - December 15, 2022February 2 - February 8, 2023February 21 - February 23, 2023

Save the Dates for the following Winter Meetings:

  • The New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference, DoubleTree Hotel and Conference Center, Manchester, New Hampshire, December 13-15  https://newenglandvfc.org/registration/
  • NOFA NY Virtual Winter Conference, February 2-5, 2023 https://nofany.org/2023conference/
  • Empire State Expo, Oncenter Syracuse, February 6-7 2023 https://nysvga.org/expo/information/
  • Becker Forum, Oncenter Syracuse, February 8, 2023  https://nysvga.org/expo/information/
  • Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program Regional Winter Meeting, The Desmond Hotel, Albany, February 21-23, 2023  

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Announcements

NEW ENYCHP BLOG

Visit the new CCE ENYCHP Blog at https://blogs.cornell.edu/enychp/.  New information is continuously being added and you can search for information using key words.  The blog is still in its infancy, but we are working hard to make it a useful resource for our growers!

ENYCHP Public Events Calendar



2022 Spotted Wing Drosophila Monitoring/Management

All berry farmers are watching for monitoring reports that indicate Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) adults are in their region. Mid-season berry crops should be sprayed as soon as berries begin to ripen unless you've elected to use insect exclusion netting.

- For general information about SWD, and to enroll for free monitoring reports, visit the Cornell SWD blog https://blogs.cornell.edu/swd1/.
- Click here for the 2022 Quick Guide for Pesticide Management.
- For some great instructional videos and fact sheets on insect exclusion netting, visit the University of Vermont's Ag Engineering blog.


Resources from CCE ENYCHP!

We are developing new ways to connect with the CCE ENYCHP team this year! We have a Youtube page located at this link. Check out videos on Table Grape Production, Pest Updates and the 20 Minute Ag Manager - in 4 Minutes series

We have a Facebook Page here as well as an Instagram page. We keep these places updated with current projects, events, and other interesting articles and deadlines.

There are also text alerts available. Fruit and vegetable farmers in 17 Eastern NY counties can now receive real time alerts on high risk disease and pest outbreaks texted directly to their cell phone. The Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture program, which is supported by local Cornell Cooperative Extension associations, will now offer text alerts to those that enroll in our program in 2019. 

The text alerts will be reserved for important crop alerts that could impact management decisions immediately. For instance, if there were an outbreak of Late Blight in the area, this would be transmitted to vegetable growers.

Farmers can choose the crop for which they wish to receive updates. Additionally they can request that Ag Business Alerts be sent to them. These alerts might include due dates for crop insurance deadlines, market opportunities etc.

If you have questions, please contact enychp@cornell.edu


Podcasts

Winter Greens Grower Interviews in Northern New York

October 22, 2022
In this episode, vegetable specialist Elisabeth Hodgdon interviews Lindsey Pashow, ag business development and marketing specialist with the Cornell Cooperative Extension Harvest New York team. They discuss findings from a series of interviews with winter greens producers in northern New York. Lindsey shares production and marketing challenges associated with growing winter greens in this cold and rural part of the state, success stories and advice from growers, and tips for those interested in adding new crop enterprises to their operation.

Funding for this project was provided by the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program. The episode was edited by Miles Todaro of the ENYCHP team.

Resources:
• Crop enterprise budget resources available from Penn State Extension (field and tunnel vegetables: https://extension.psu.edu/small-scale-field-grown-and-season-extension-budgets), UMass Extension (winter spinach budgets: https://ag.umass.edu/vegetable/outreach-project/improving-production-yield-of-winter-greens-in-northeast and field vegetables: https://ag.umass.edu/vegetable/fact-sheets/crop-production-budgets), and Cornell Cooperative Extension (high tunnel vegetables: https://blogs.cornell.edu/hightunnels/economics/sample-budgets-spreadsheets/). Use these budgets as templates when developing your own crop enterprise budget.
• The Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook, by Richard Wiswall
• The Winter Harvest Handbook, by Eliot Coleman

For questions about the winter greens project discussed in this podcast, reach out to Lindsey Pashow (lep67@cornell.edu) or Elisabeth Hodgdon(eh528@cornell.edu).

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