Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture Enrollment

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Spotted Winged Drosophila found locally and throughout New York and New England

Laura McDermott, Team Leader, Small Fruit and Vegetable Specialist
Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

August 7, 2012

Spotted Winged Drosophila found locally and throughout New York and New England

Last week and early this week scouts throughout the state have reported finding SWD in vinegar traps or through other monitoring methods. These findings have been very small as far as numbers of individuals, but extension specialists in New England are warning that fruit fly numbers balloon quickly from initial sighting to infestation levels. Counties that have reported SWD catches include Albany, Columbia, Monroe, Orange, Orleans, Tompkins and Ulster counties.  Similar findings have been reported in Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania throughout the early summer.  In light of these findings, blueberry, summer and fall raspberry and day-nuetral strawberry growers are urged to be vigilant about this pest.

 
Monitor for SWD- There are two basic strategies to monitor for SWD- trapping adult flies and monitoring fruit for larval infestation. To trap adult flies, you can use a clear plastic cup with a removable lid and poke several small holes (literature reports that you should use a drill bit of 0.1875 inch) 3" up from bottom all around the cup. Pour 2" of apple cider vinegar (studies have also tested sake, but the vinegar seems to work the best) into the cup. A drop of liquid soap helps break the surface tension so that the flies will sink.  Use a sturdy wire or plastic zip tie to hang the trap at the fruiting level of the canopy on the shaded side.  Ideally this should be done prior to fruit coloring. A minimum of three traps should be placed in a crop and the traps should be cleaned and checked weekly. Some traps use yellow sticky cards that are suspended above the vinegar. This may be helpful as you learn to ID the insect. To ID the submerged flies, you will need to strain vinegar through a fine filter. SWD males are MUCH easier than females to ID as they have the spotted wings. Female flies do not have spots on the wings and are IDed by looking at the ovipositor which is quite prominent in SWD. There are many fruit flies that may be drawn to the vinegar trap, so if you have insects in the vinegar, don't panic. For more information about
making your own traps, check out: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_DX9K8e6ra8

Managing SWD in Berry Crops
When to pull the trigger will be the trickiest decision for most growers. Anecdotally, extension researchers with just one season of experience are suggesting that growers not wait until they see large numbers of SWD in vinegar traps. This is because apple cider vinegar traps do not seem to be good early indicators of SWD.  In fact, most folks have been able to find larvae in fruit at close to the same time they are catching adults in the traps. Yeast traps, which are much tricker to see the flies in, have been shown to be much better lures, and some folks have suggested adding cheap wine to the apple cider to increase the potency of the phenol given off. 

Once you do decide to spray, the interval will depend on the materials you choose. In fall raspberries, a Malathion (used for control of Japanese Beetle 1 DTH, 12 hr REI) and Delegate (1 DTH and 4 hr REI)  rotation on a 7-10 day cycle should provide adequate control if you start early enough.  Spiking the mixture with a sugar solution of 1 lb of sugar per 100 gallons may help lure fruit flies into sprayed crop.  Other labeled materials include Molt-X and Entrust. For organic growers, Entrust should be used in rotation with Pyganic, but Entrust will provide the most efficacy. The spray program for organic growers needs to be closer to 5days to insure control.

For day neutral strawberry growers, materials used for tarnished plant bugs should help knock back SWD, and the use of sugar in the tank might improve the efficacy of the product for SWD.  AzaSol is labeled for SWD. Aza-Direct, another formulation of azadiractin, is OMRI approved as is Pyganic. The azadirachtin materials have 4 hours REI. Pyganic has 12 hours.

The cultural aspects of controlling these pests include picking the crop VERY clean. Remove all fruit that is spent. Try to gather drops (or spray the ground). Cull piles of fruit should be buried daily. 

How long does it take for fruit fly to develop?  Egg to larvae is usually 1-2 days but it can take as few 2 hours. Chilling fruit to almost 32 degrees may actually kill larvae, but temperatures around 40 degrees will only slow development.




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Ethnic Vegetables

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Garlic

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Grapes

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Horseradish

Kohlrabi

Kohlrabi

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Lettuce / Leafy Greens

Lettuce / Leafy Greens

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Potatoes

Pumpkins / Gourds

Pumpkins / Gourds

Radishes

Radishes

Raspberries / Blackberries

Raspberries / Blackberries

Rhubarb

Rhubarb

Rutabaga

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Squash - Summer

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Upcoming Events

June Produce Field Meeting

Event Offers DEC Credits

June 5, 2024 : June Produce Field Meeting
Fort Plain, NY

Come join us for a discussion on greenhouse production, IPM techniques in the greenhouse, and a discussion of IPM strategies for tomatoes, cole crops and cucurbits. 

Meeting is free and open to the public.

2 DEC credits in categories 1A and 23 are available. 

View June Produce Field Meeting Details

Weed Management in Perennial Fruit Crops - Field Workshop

Event Offers DEC Credits

June 20, 2024 : Weed Management in Perennial Fruit Crops - Field Workshop
Tivoli, NY

Join us on the morning of June 20th as we hear from Cornell University weed management specialists Dr. Lynn Sosnoskie and Dr. Yu Jiang, who will discuss their recent research on autonomous orchard weeding systems.  

We will also hear from Mike Basedow of CCE ENYCH and learn about the ongoing results of herbicide research trials he is conducting.  Bryan Brown of NYS IPM will discuss pre-plant preparations and mulches that could be useful for controlling weeds without herbicides.   

Identifying the differences between weed species and key differences between annuals and perennials that factor into management will also be covered.     

This workshop is FREE to attend, but we ask that you please register ahead 

View Weed Management in Perennial Fruit Crops - Field Workshop Details

Champlain Valley Orchard Weed Management Field Trial Review

Event Offers DEC Credits

June 21, 2024 : Champlain Valley Orchard Weed Management Field Trial Review
Peru, NY

Friday June 21, 9-11:30AM

Meet at the Northern Orchard Walker block at 688 River Rd, Peru, NY

Join the ENYCHP on the morning of June 21st as we hear from Dr. Lynn Sosnoskie and Dr. Yu Jiang about their recent research looking at autonomous orchard crop management and weeding technologies.   We will then visit three of Mike's active herbicide research plots to see firsthand the level of control the trial treatments are providing during the critical weed free period. 

2.5 DEC Credits are available for this meeting in categories 22, 1A, and 10. Free to attend, but we ask that you please register ahead 

View Champlain Valley Orchard Weed Management Field Trial Review Details

Announcements

2023 Spotted Wing Drosophila Monitoring/Management

All berry farmers are watching for monitoring reports that indicate Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) adults are in their region. Mid-season berry crops should be sprayed as soon as berries begin to ripen unless you've elected to use insect exclusion netting.

- For general information about SWD, and to enroll for free monitoring reports, visit the Cornell SWD blog https://blogs.cornell.edu/swd1/.
- Click here for the 2023 Quick Guide for Pesticide Management. 
- For some great instructional videos and fact sheets on insect exclusion netting, visit the University of Vermont's Ag Engineering blog.


Resources from CCE ENYCHP!

We are developing new ways to connect with the CCE ENYCHP team this year! We have a Youtube page located at this link. Check out videos on Table Grape Production, Pest Updates and the 20 Minute Ag Manager - in 4 Minutes series

We have a Facebook Page here as well as an Instagram page. We keep these places updated with current projects, events, and other interesting articles and deadlines.

There are also text alerts available. Fruit and vegetable farmers in 17 Eastern NY counties can now receive real time alerts on high risk disease and pest outbreaks texted directly to their cell phone. The Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture program, which is supported by local Cornell Cooperative Extension associations, will now offer text alerts to those that enroll in our program in 2019. 

The text alerts will be reserved for important crop alerts that could impact management decisions immediately. For instance, if there were an outbreak of Late Blight in the area, this would be transmitted to vegetable growers.

Farmers can choose the crop for which they wish to receive updates. Additionally they can request that Ag Business Alerts be sent to them. These alerts might include due dates for crop insurance deadlines, market opportunities etc.

If you have questions, please contact enychp@cornell.edu


Podcasts

Winter Greens Grower Interviews in Northern New York

October 22, 2022
In this episode, vegetable specialist Elisabeth Hodgdon interviews Lindsey Pashow, ag business development and marketing specialist with the Cornell Cooperative Extension Harvest New York team. They discuss findings from a series of interviews with winter greens producers in northern New York. Lindsey shares production and marketing challenges associated with growing winter greens in this cold and rural part of the state, success stories and advice from growers, and tips for those interested in adding new crop enterprises to their operation.

Funding for this project was provided by the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program. The episode was edited by Miles Todaro of the ENYCHP team.

Resources:
• Crop enterprise budget resources available from Penn State Extension (field and tunnel vegetables: https://extension.psu.edu/small-scale-field-grown-and-season-extension-budgets), UMass Extension (winter spinach budgets: https://ag.umass.edu/vegetable/outreach-project/improving-production-yield-of-winter-greens-in-northeast and field vegetables: https://ag.umass.edu/vegetable/fact-sheets/crop-production-budgets), and Cornell Cooperative Extension (high tunnel vegetables: https://blogs.cornell.edu/hightunnels/economics/sample-budgets-spreadsheets/). Use these budgets as templates when developing your own crop enterprise budget.
• The Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook, by Richard Wiswall
• The Winter Harvest Handbook, by Eliot Coleman

For questions about the winter greens project discussed in this podcast, reach out to Lindsey Pashow (lep67@cornell.edu) or Elisabeth Hodgdon(eh528@cornell.edu).

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